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THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION SYSTEM ON ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY

THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION SYSTEM ON ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY

ABSTRACT

The information system I.S plays exactly the same role in the organization as the heart plays in our body. The system ensures that appropriate data is collected from the various sources, processed, and sent further to all the needy destinations. The system is expected to fulfill the information needs of an individual, a group of individuals, the management functionaries.

Virtually, no business or organization, large or small can compete without information systems. Therefore, this study aims to assess the impact of information systems on organizational productivity using Nigerian Railway Corporation, Head office Enugu as a case study… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

INFORMATION SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

An organization is a social entity that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment. The word is derived from the Greek word “organo”, which means “organ” a compartment for a particular task. There are a variety of legal types of the organization including corporations, government, non-government organization, international organization, etc. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities.

In the social sciences, organizations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociology, economics, political science, psychology, management, and organizational communication. The broader analysis of organizations is commonly referred to as organizational structure, organizational studies, organizational behavior, and organization analysis.

Productivity: is a measure of the efficiency of production. Productivity is a ratio of production output to what is required to produce it (Inputs). The measure of productivity is defined as a total output per one unit of total input.

A production model is a numerical expression of the production process that is based on production data, i.e, measured data in the form of prices and quantities of inputs and outputs. It is advisable to examine any phenomenon whatsoever only after defining the entity the phenomenon under review forms parts of. Hence, productivity cannot be examined as a phenomenon independently built is necessary to identify the entities it belongs to such as an entity is defined as a production process.

Productivity growth is important to the firm because more real income means that the firm can meet it perhaps growth obligations to customers, suppliers, workers, shareholders, and governments (taxes and regulation) and still remain competitive or even improve its competitiveness in the market place… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Statement of the Problem

Nowadays, the information system is vital to any organization (porter and Miller 2002). Irani (2001) argues that a successful and quality (IS) can bring enhanced efficiency and effectiveness in operation, possible better business performance, and stronger organizational culture. The emergency of management information systems in the operations of the organization in Nigeria and other sectors has brought about several noticeable developments but at the same time, it brings about its attendant problem.

The machine age has brought about the development of methods. Organizational executive administrators, managers, and staff need to go beyond their natural endowment to be able to operate these machines themselves. This makes training a sine-qua-non but only very few organization and individuals can afford the high cost of training required in operating those machine and it bestows impossible when it involves an oversees training course… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Research Objectives

The general and prime purpose of this study is to assess the impact of an information systems on organization productivity with special reference to Nigerian Railway Corporation, South-Eastern headquarters, Enugu. In addition to the aforementioned core objectives, this study also stressed specifically on the following objective:

  1. Find how information systems in the enhancement of organizational productivity in Nigerian Railway Corporation Enugu… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

INFORMATION SYSTEM

LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

To properly understand the concept of Information systems (IS) There is a need to understand the meaning of management and information system. Information System (IS) is a formal system for providing management with accurate and timely information necessary for decision making.

Management is usually defined as planning, organizing, directing, and controlling business operations. This is in line with the definition given by Henri (2002), which stated that management is “the process of allocating an organization’s inputs, including human and economic resources, by planning, organizing, directing, and controlling for the purpose of producing goods or services desired by customers so that organizational objectives are accomplished.

If management has knowledge of the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of the business, its decision can be made on the basis of facts, and decisions are more accurate and timelier as a result”. The information enables us to determine the need to create new products and services. Information tells us to move into new markets or to withdraw from other markets (Remi, 2003)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Conceptual Framework

  • Concept of Information System (IS)

Lawrence (2005) defines the information system as an “a computer system that provides management and other personnel within an organization with up-to-date information regarding the organization’s productivity; for example, current inventory and sales. It is usually linked to a computer network, which is created by joining different computers together in order to share data and resources.

It is designed to capture, transmit, store, retrieve, manipulate, and or display information used in one or more business processes. This system output information in a form that is useable at all levels of the organization: strategic, tactical, and operational. However, several definitions have been given to Information System (IS) by many authors who might be based on their background.

Metadata (2005) defines an Information System (IS) as an “interpreted user-machine system for providing information to support the operation of management analysis and decision-making functions in any organization”. The system utilizes computer hardware and software, manual procedures, models of analysis, planning, and central for decision making. From the above definition, it can be seen that it is the power of a computer system that makes Information System (IS) feasible… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

  • Problems of Information System (IS)

According to Raymond (1989) Information System (IS) was described as a well-coordinated information system, a database that is to provide management with needed information to plan and make decisions. Modern technology has further made the resort to IS in management imperative because of the changing circumstances and environment.

There is a lack of management involvement in the design and poor appreciation of management support. Finally, it is recommended that organizations, privates, and public, commercial and non-commercial should endeavor to set up an IS unit in their organizations so that adequate information can be put at the disposal of their management… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

  • Organizational Productivity

Organizations have a significant role in our everyday lives and therefore, successful organizations represent a key element for developing countries. A number of economists consider organizations and institutions similar to an engine in defining the political, economic, and social progress. Precisely for this reason, in the last 22 years, there were 6 Nobel awards given to scholars who have concentrated their study on the analysis of organizations and institutions (Corina, Liviu, & Roxana Stegerean, 2011).

Productivity and its continuity are the focus of any organization because only through productivity can organizations be able to grow and progress. Organizational productivity is one of the most important variables in management studies and arguably the most significant pointer of organization productivity (Corina et al., 2011)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Empirical Review

Opeke and Madukoma (2013) carried out a study on Information Use and Job Productivity of Senior Non-Academic Staff in Nigerian business organization. A survey design was employed to carry out the study. The population of the study comprised of 112 approved Business organization in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 27 business organizations that took part in the study.

A total of 1, 804 Senior Non-academic Staff was the sample size of the study. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Out of 1,804 questionnaires distributed, 1,270 were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics such as frequency count, mean, standard deviation and correlation were used to present the data.

The study established that information sources used by senior non-academic staff in Nigerian Business organizations were mostly online (internet, e-mail, CD-ROMS, etc), print materials, policy papers, and Subordinates in the office. It also found that being in possession of information helped the staff to contribute meaningfully in performing their work effectively… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Theoretical Review

  • Classical Organization Theory

Classical organization theory evolved during the first half of this century. It represents the merger of scientific management, bureaucratic theory, and administrative theory. Frederick Taylor (1917) developed scientific management theory (often called “Taylorism”) at the beginning of this century.

His theory had four basic principles: 1) find the one “best way” to perform each task, 2) carefully match each worker to each task, 3) closely supervise workers, and use reward and punishment as motivators, and 4) the task of management is planning and control… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This chapter focuses on the strategies employed to execute the study. It presents the research design, the population and sample selection, method of data collection, and method of data analysis.

Research design

A survey design was adopted for this study. Ebenuwa-Okoh (2011) citing Kerlinger (1993) stated that a survey is a descriptive research method aimed at discovering relative incidences, distribution, and inter-relationships of variables. This implies that the survey gathers information about variables, not individuals; the researcher, therefore, examines the opinions, attitudes, or feelings of individuals about a particular problem. This design is considered most appropriate for the study because survey studies utilize questionnaires, observations, tests, and interviews as tools in obtaining information.

Method of Data Collection

For effective and adequate courage of the research findings, the researcher used the following methods:

Questionnaire Method: This is a lot of structure and segmental questions which are aimed at eliciting relevant data from the respondents to whom it is being administered, for the purpose of simplicity, the researcher decided to adopt the 5 points Likert scale questionnaire format where the respondent can easily make their choice. The questionnaire checklist was designed based mostly on the aspect of material management.

Population of study                                                                                     

The population of this research work was drawn from the workforce of In Nigerian Railway Corporation in Enugu… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

INFORMATION SYSTEM

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Introduction

Response rate refers to the number of study participants who complete a given set of questionnaires in comparison to the total number of those requested to participate. It is thus the percentage of those who respond to research questions.

In this study, out of the 371 participants drawn from the selected populations who were selected to participate in the study, only 300 participants fully responded to the questionnaires thereby enabling the study to attain an 80.87% response rate. From the results, the response rate was considered excellent in the light of experts’ assertion that a response rate of 50% is adequate for analysis and reporting; a response rate of 60% is good, and; that of 70% and above is excellent (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2003).

Presentation of Data Result

  • Age of Respondents

Table 4.1 below indicates the age range of respondents. Out of the total number of respondents, 10 % were aged less than 25years 43.3 % were aged between 25 and 35years, 23.3 % of respondents were aged between 36 and 45years, 16.7 % were aged between 46 and 55years and 6.7 % were aged 55 years and above.

Table 4.1: Age of Respondents

Age Distribution Number of Respondents Percentage (%)
Less than 25 30 10.0
25 – 35 130 43.3
36 – 45 70 23.3
46 – 55 50 16.7
Above 55 20 6.7
Total 300 100.0

Source: Field Data, January 2020

  • Sex Distribution of Respondents

As seen from table 4.2, 63.3 % of the respondents are males whiles the remaining 36.7 % of the respondents are females.

Table 4.2: Gender Composition of Respondents

 Gender  Number of Respondents  Percentage (%)
 Male  190  63.3
 Female  110  36.7
 Total  30  100.0

Source: Field Data, January 2020.

Figure 1. Gender Composition of Respondents

information system

Source: Field Data, January 2020

(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

  • IS Usage in Nigerian Railway Corporation

Among the list of respondents, 67 % use information systems as against 33% who do not use information systems in the organization. This is shown in the pie chart below.

Figure 4. Information system usage in Nigerian Railway Corporation

information system

Source: Field Data, January 2020.

(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Conclusion

Nigerian Railway Corporations play an important role in the global economy: they contribute to the GDP and reduction of unemployment, especially in developing countries. Many governments around the world are pushing for Nigerian Railway Corporations to adopt IS in order for them to survive in the knowledge economy.

The Nigeria Government is no exception. The need for Nigerian Railway Corporations to adopt Information systems is driven by governments, globalization, innovation, flexibility, and competitive advantage… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

  • Recommendations

In summary, the recommendations for Nigerian Railway Corporations to overcome barriers and improve implementation of IS in the organizations for productivity are as follows:

1.      Promotion of IS Education in Nigerian Railway Corporation

Nigerian Railway Corporations should invest in educating their staff and management about IS and its benefits. As training cost is known to be of the impediments towards the development of IS skills, this will help these Nigerian Railway Corporations acquire these skills and use them in their work.

Training agencies responsible for providing IS training to Nigerian Railway Corporation owners must understand not only how this group of adults learns, but also what the obstacles are that they usually face in learning technology-related subjects… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

INFORMATION SYSTEM

REFERENCES

Abdulkareem, A. T., Alabi, A. T., Fashiku, C. O., &Akinnubi, O. P. (2012). Information systems and senior staff job productivity in Polytechnics, Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 3(4), 55-60.

Ahmed, M.I.(2009). Information systems in Organisation Libraries of Chhattisgarh, Raipur, India .www.htt.mtiazetplores

Aigbavboa, C., &Thwala, W. (2012). An exploration of the use of Delphi methodology in housing satisfaction studies. In: Laryea, Agyepong, Leininger. & Hughes. (Eds). Proceeding, 4th West Africa Built Environment Resources (WABER) Conference, 24-26 July, (Pp147-161), Abuja; Nigeria

Ajayi, I. A., &Omirin, F.F. (2007). The use of information systems (IS) in decision-making in the South West Nigerian Organisation. Organisation Research and Review, 2(5), 109 -110.

Alabi, A.T (2000).Information Systems (IS) Equipment       Utilization in Federal and State Organisation in Nigeria. Ilorin Journal of  Organisation, 20,105-112.

Al-Dhmour, M.A.(2010). Evaluation of the role of information systems (IS) in administrative decision-making at the Organisation of Jordan. Masters Thesis, Organisation of Utara, Malaysia.

Al-Hadabi, A.S.(2007). Analysis of the environmental concepts in Science textbooks of the basic stage in the Republic of Yemen, Ph.D. Thesis, The National Organisation of Malaysia.

(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

INFORMATION SYSTEM

(Get the Complete Chapter One To Five Project Material)

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