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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RON) are free radicals, which derived either from normal metabolic processes or from external sources (Magalhaes, 2006). These species are essential to energy supply, detoxification, chemical signalling and immune function (Dimitrios, 2006). However, overproduction of these free radical may lead to damage to valuable biomolecules such as DNA, lipids and proteins.
These free radicals are often associated with the oxidation in food and biological systems which will cause oxidative rancidity in foods and the development of several human diseases such as neurological degeneration, diabetes and certain types of cancer (Magalhaes, 2006).
An antioxidant is any substance which is capable of delaying, preventing the oxidative damage of lipids, protein and nucleic acids by reactive oxygen species, which include reactive free radicals such as superoxide, hydroxyl, peroxyl, alkoxyl and non-radicals such as hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous (Lim et al., 2007).
Thus, antioxidants have gained numerous attention in the past few years, especially within the food, biological and agrochemical fields. There is increasing evidence that the consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with a reduced risk of degenerative disease such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and cataracts (Chinnici et al., 2004). This association is often attributed to the natural antioxidant present in fruits and vegetables, such as vitamin C and E, carotenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids, which prevent free radical damage (Silva et al., 2004).
Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between the intake of fruits and vegetables and prevention of diseases like atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, arthritis and also ageing (Kaur and Kapoor, 2001).
Annona muricata L. (A. muricata) is one of the tropical fruits that demonstrate antioxidant properties. This plant contains annonaceous acetogenins in the twigs, unripe fruit, seeds, roots, and bark tissues, which display antitumor, pesticidal, antimalarial, anthelmintic, piscicidal, antiviral, and antimicrobial effects, thus suggesting many potentially useful applications. Ripe A. muricata pulp extract contains three prominent acetogenins: asimicin, bullatacin, and bullatalicin.
Previous research on A. muricata was focused on the leaves, seeds and roots for pharmaceutical purposes (Gleeve et al., 1997; Jaramillo et al., 2000; Onimawo, 2002). Little attention has been paid to the study of the pulp and peel of A. muricata fruit. This study was therefore conducted to compare the antioxidant properties, phyto-constituents, proximate and mineral compositions of the peel and pulp of A. muricata.
Persea americana Mill (Luraceae) is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The tree is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas (Lu et al., 2005). The seed of P. americana (avocado seed) has diverse application in ethno–medicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites, skin treatment and beautification.
The avocado seed oil has several health benefit e.g. for controlling human weight (especially used for obese for weight loss) (Lopez et al., 1996; Roger, 1999). P. americana leaves have been reported to have or possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002). The edible part (fruit) is very popular in vegetarian cuisine, making a substitute for meat in sandwiches and salads, because of its high fat content and high in valuable, health-promoting fats (Lu et al., 2005) . The fruit is not sweet but fatty, almost distinctly, yet subtly flavoured, and of smooth, almost creamy texture. Avocado fruits in many countries such as Mexico, Brazil, South Africa and India are frequently used for milkshakes and occasionally added to ice-cream (Zeldes, 2010).
While several works had been reported on the chemical characterization of phyto-constituents of P. americana fruit, there is still limited information on its potential use in the management/prevention of degenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the anti-oxidative properties and inhibitory effect of phenolic extracts of the leaves and fruit parts of P. americana on Fe2+ induced lipid oxidation.
The plant Cola lepidota, also known as monkey cola in West Cameroons, Duala, mbwid; oji ochicha (cockroach cola) or achicha (Iwu, 1993) amongst the Ibo speaking people of Nigeria, belongs to the sterculiaceae family. It grows wild and sometimes cultivated in the tropics especially distributed in lower Guinea, Gabon, Western Cameroon and Eastern Nigeria. The phyto-constituents found in the seed of Cola lepidota include falvones; glycosides, saponins, steroids (Burkill, 1985). The seed has been used as febrifuges, for pulmonary disorders, and as an anticancer (Engel et al., 2011). Until now, there has not been a report on the antioxidant activity of any part of Cola lepidota. As part of an ongoing biological evaluation of medicinal plants for their therapeutic uses, the current study was carried out to determine the free radical scavenging activity viz avis the antioxidant activity.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
Oxidation of biological molecules has been postulated to induce a variety of pathological events such as diabetes, pancreatitis and ageing (Finkel and Holbrook, 2000).
Evidence has shown that these damaging events are caused by free radicals (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1993). Free radicals are unstable species because they have unpaired electron pairing with biological macromolecules. It is well established that free radicals are associated with process that leads to cell degeneration, especially in organs such as brain and pancreas (Shulman et al., 2004).
Unchecked activities of ROS had been linked to health disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, gastric ulcers, reperfusion, arthritis and inflammatory diseases (Halliwell, 1989; Vajragupta et al., 2000). In the pancreas, Fe accumulates in acinar cells and in the islets of Langerhans, thereby resulting in the destruction of β-cells associated with diabetes mellitus (Shah and Fonseca, 2011). High levels of both Cu and Fe, with low levels of Zn and Mn play a crucial role in the progression of several degenerative diseases (Johnson, 2001).
Although Fe is necessary physiologically as components of many enzymes and proteins, free Fe in the cytosol and mitochondria could cause considerable oxidative damage by acting catalytically in the production of ROS which have the potential to damage cellular lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and carbohydrate resulting in wide-ranging impairment in cellular function and integrity (Britton et al., 2002).
ROS can directly attack the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the cell membranes and induce lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the end product of lipid peroxidation, which is a process where reactive oxygen species (ROS) degrade polyunsaturated fatty acids. This compound is a reactive aldehyde and is one of the many reactive electrophile species that cause toxic stress in cells and form advanced glycation end-products. The production of this aldehyde is used as a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress in an organism (Murray et al., 2000). However, the most likely and practical way to fight degenerative diseases is to improve body antioxidant status, which could be achieved by higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Foods of plant origin usually contain natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can scavenge free radicals (Sun et al., 2002; Alia et al., 2003; Oboh and Akindahunsi, 2004; Oboh, 2005). Medicinal plant have continued to attract attention in the global search for effective methods of using plants' parts (e.g. seeds, stems, leaves, roots and bark etc) for the treatment of many diseases affecting humans (Sofowora, 1993). Many important drugs used in medicine today are directly or indirectly derived from plants due to its bioactive constituents such as; alkaloids, steroids, tannins e.t.c (Cordeiro and Oniyangi, 1998).
In recent years, secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as sources of medicinal agents (Krishnaraju et al., 2005). Phenolic compounds are an important group of secondary metabolites, which are synthesized by plants because of plant adaptation to biotic and a biotic stress condition such as infection, water stress, and cold stress (Oboh and Rocha 2007).
In recent years, phenolic compounds have attracted the interest of researchers because of their antioxidants capacity; they can protect the human body from free radicals, whose formation is associated with the normal natural metabolism of aerobic cells. The antiradical activity of flavonoids and phenols is principally based on the structural relationship between different parts of their chemical structure (Rice-Evans et al., 1996).
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RON) are free radicals, which derived either from normal metabolic processes or from external sources (Magalhaes, 2006). These species are essential to energy supply, detoxification, chemical signalling and immune function (Dimitrios, 2006). However, over production of these free radical may lead to damage to valuable biomolecules such as DNA, lipids and proteins. These free radicals are often associated with the oxidation in food and biological systems which will cause oxidative rancidity in foods and the development of several human diseases such as neurological degeneration, diabetes and certain types of cancer. Discovery of this problem initiated the research of this project topic by the researcher.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
The following forms the objective of this study;
Identifications of the free radical that results from either normal metabolic process or from external source affect human health adversely
To assist in creating awareness over the dangers associated with excessive production of these free radicals.
Prove practically how these medical effects can be suppressed in the laboratory.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
It is the belief of the writer that at the end of this research, the researcher will has been able to portrait the disadvantages of over production of free radicals which have been proved to cause oxidative rancidity in foods and the development of several human diseases such as neurological degeneration, diabetes and certain types of cancer.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The research work only covers the inhibitory effect of black pear, sour sop and monkey seed during lipid oxidation. The practical work was carried out using the fruit part of the fruits to ascertain whether the extracts of the fruits can be suppressed as to avert the adverse human effect.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:
The researcher encountered several difficulties during the time of carrying out this research work. The limitation ranges from time constraints which the researcher faced in trying to combine carrying out the research work and preparing for exams. Accessing relevant documents on road construction delay documentation wasn't easy as no company was willing to showcase their flaws. Financing the research was another problem since INFLUENCE OF CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT ON THE ACADEMIC performance OF SCHOOL STUDENTS A PROJECT WORK BY NAME DEPARTMENT: DEPARTMENT REG. NO: NUMBER July 2016, 01 TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the research
1.2 Statement of research problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research question
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Review of concept
2.2 Review of related work
2.3 Empirical studies
2.4 Theoretical framework
2.5 Summary of the review
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research method
3.2 Fact finding method
3.2 Sources of Data
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample and Sampling
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Reliability and Validity of Instrument
3.7 Method of Investigation
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data presentation and Analysis
4.2 Test of Hypothesis
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This research work was designed to investigate the importance of continuous assessment in some selected secondary school and also teacher's competency in implementing continuous assessment in Egor. To achieve the laid down objectives, the researcher carried out the investigation by designing well structured questionnaire, for 50 respondents in the area of study. The data so far generated from the study was analyzed using the simple percentage statistical analysis. The study revealed that both teachers and students recognize the impact of continuous assessment, continuous assessment have not only help to prevent examination malpractice, continuous assessment help promote good study habit and reading culture among students, help teachers given feedback and keep-assessment record of students and help diagnose students area of strength and weakness in education. It was also discovered that most teachers they mainly assess students cognitive activities at the detriment of psychomotor and effective behaviour etc recommendations were further made by the researcher based on the findings, these include among others thing the need for government to proffer solution to the problem of record keeping, all teachers should update their knowledge in measurement and evaluation, make use of continuous assessment records for decision making about each learners, teachers should assess all area of learning outcomes and finally, to be positively disposed to continuous assessment.
Background of the study
Continuous assessment is one of the new concepts introduced in the Nigeria educational system with the new national policy on education in short it is an interval part of the new system of education otherwise known as the 9-3-3-4 system. Assessment is an essential element in the educational process. A teacher must make some measurements of the extent to which the learning experiences of students have enabled them, achieve the stated objectives of the course of study.
Ohunche on Odili (2001) defines assessment as an involving the determination for the value and work of a thing implies making decision. The changing needs and attitude of individual children call for a continuous evaluation of such needs and trials in order to enable the children understand themselves better. Their teachers to improve on their teaching methods, the parents and guidance understood the children, so that educational vocational and personal social decision can be realistically made on them. Scholars have looked at the issues of the attitude of students towards assessment in educational system and have seen that the success education will ever offer is seriously tied to the facilities relevant to it. According to Peretomode (2007) stock of educational facilities in public school system in Nigeria is enormous even at the present state of their insufficient and inadequacy. They represent substantial financial outlay to the tax payer. Establishing new educational facilities is no longer that easy because of the current state of economic depression and constantly raising costs. Edem (2008) seeing the importance and position influence of school facilities to educational achievement of students said. It is the duty of the ministry or the board of education to make furniture's, equipment, books and expendable materials available to schools. Their inadequacy constitutes another source of frustration and disillusion among teachers. African leaders earnestly desire good education programmes for their people, but in many cases the resources are so merger that little progress can be made. According to Inyong Abia (2002) continuous assessment are the pivot on which the wheel of teaching and learning process rotates. As cited by Inyang Abia (2004) the use of continuous assessment is the most significant aspect of influence for students effective performance. According to Bayo (2005) the availability of continuous assessment in learning process have the potency for motivating and focusing learners attention on the lesson being presented.
According to Obi (2003), a good continuous assessment can make the following contributions. Promote the development of ready skills and encourage long term habits through ready, listening and etc those learning habits from the key to continuous success in school and to the personal encouragement of leisure this throughout line. Assessment is not merely testing (Osokoya, 2006), it is a process through which the quality of an individual work or performance is judged (Mwebaza, 2010). In relation to school setting. Greaney (2001) defines assessment as any procedure or activity that is designed to collect information about the knowledge, attitude, or skills of the learner or group of learners. Thus, in the context of education, assessment can be defined as a predetermined process through which the quality of a student's performance in the three domains of educational objectives (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) is judged. Assessment of students learning of curriculum contents in the area of knowledge, skills, and values is a major pre-occupation of many educational reforms. This is because results from such assessment not only provide feedbacks regarding the educational progress of students but remain the authentic yardstick for gaining the effectiveness of the teacher, the quality of instruction and in part the functionality of any curriculum reform. Continuous assessment as an assessment carried out in an ongoing process (Mwebaza, 2010) is an objective judgment considered an important part of structured assessment purposely designed and administered to enable the teacher to evaluate some aspect of a students learning of a specific time.
A number of characterizations of continuous assessment exist in the literature. According to Agawam cited in Mwebaza (2010) continuous assessment not simply continuous testing. Continuous assessment does not solely depend on formal tests. Continuous assessment is more than giving a test; it involves every decision made by the teacher in class to improve students achievement. Continuous assessment as only a part of the field of educational evaluation is a method of evaluating the process and achievement of students in educational institutions (Yoloye, 2006). This means that continuous assessment could be used to predict future student's performance in the final examinations and the possible success of individuals at the work place or on a particular job. Continuous assessment is a formative evaluation procedure concerned with finding out in a systematic manner, all gains that a student's has made in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills after a given set of learning experience (Ogunniyi, 2004). A more comprehensive definition of continuous assessment is given by Ezewu and Okoye (2007).
Statement of Problem
.Despite the high premium placed on qualitative education, it is unfortunate to note that secondary school teachers find it difficult in the implementation of the programme. Therefore, it is stated that:
.The validity of assessment records is often incomprehensive due to difference in school academic standards, enrolments, infrastructure, staffing, facilities and policies.
.Continuous assessment tests are not often goal objective oriented, due to the limitations of constant validity and test administration procedures.
.There is an inadequacy in the availability of standardized instruments used for collating data in continuous assessment tests in secondary schools.
.There is a continuous decline in proper documentation and storage of continuous assessment records and related information in most secondary schools.
.Continuous assessment just like any other government policy cannot be implemented effectively if there are underlying problem. (Ortyo-Yande;1988).
Most teachers lack the skills on process as well as the practice of keeping the records of children's achievement as they are scored and graded and according to the weightings given to each component area that has been assessed.
Another problem most teachers face is that of incompetence in developing valid assessment instrument for evaluation of behavioural outcomes in the three domains. Most teachers seem to be confused in the amount of material content that should be covered by each test.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the problems encountered in the theory and practice of continuous assessment in selected secondary schools programme and make recommendation on how these problems could be overcome at the same time weighing the impact these problems of continuous assessment in teaching in secondary schools.
Specifically, the objectives of the studies include the following:
– To find out the extent of teachers compliance with the continuous assessment standards.
– To determine the ways of assisting teachers in improving upon their skill in continuous assessment practice in Economics thereby enhancing the optimum performance of the students.
– To identify the factors that militates against Economic teachers compliance with the laid down guidelines for continuous assessment.
Significance of the Study
The effective implementation of Continuous Assessment (C.A) has beneficial effects to the learners, Teacher's Parents or guardian and the educational system general. This is due to the fact that Continuous Assessment is more useful, practical, comprehensive and systematic than the traditional. One-shot summative examination system (ALI and Akabue:1989) in addition of being guidance oriented.
This research work will be of immense benefit to all stakeholders in the education industry such as:
To student who are the end benefactors of the programme of continuous assessment.
It will help the secondary school teacher to implement the continuous assessment programme effectively.
Government education planning agencies for validation of their training programme.
It encourages good study habits among student. Students will see the need to work continuously at their studies rather than engaging in what may be termed “massed” learning towards the end of the year.
To the educational system, continuous assessment provides objective data on whether the standard of education is falling or rising. Parents/guardians are also afforded of opportunity of being informed of the holistic assessment of their children performance.
Scope of the Study
The study is united to the practices and problems encountered by economics teachers in the implementation of continuous assessment in senior secondary school.
This study sought to answer the following Research Questions.
– To achieve the aim of this research study a set of research questions were formulated thus stated below:
– What other aspect of educational objectives does continuous assessment measure apart from the cognitive domain?
– What are the teachers' perceptions on continuous assessment as a system of evaluation in secondary school?
– What are the remedies to the problems of implementing continuous assessment and what impact will it make on the learning process of the student in the secondary schools.
– To what extent do teachers in secondary school comply with the continuous assessment guidelines?
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study was designed to cover five schools in Ado-ekitilocal government Area in Ado-ekiti
Research samples were drawn from pupils, teachers and principals. Lack of time hindered the researcher in extending the research to cover all the schools in the federal capital territory. As a result few schools in the Ado-ekiti were randomly selected.
Financial constraint was another problem since the cost of moving from one place to another was not easy as the researcher was not mobile to go round the schools.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined as used in the study in order to avoid misinterpretation by different individuals
Continuous Assessment: This is a method of ascertaining what a pupils gains from school in terms of knowledge, industry and character development, taking into account all his/her performance in test assessment, project and other educational activities during a given period which an education should determine.
Implentation: The act or process of putting into efect some operations plans, policies or idea is known as implementation.
Competence: This has to do with effiiciency, the ability to be skillful. Knowledgeable and to be effective in performing gien tasks. It implies the possession of specialized skills active performance in specialized area like teaching field.
Assignment: An ability which may be oral or practical given to learners by the teachers to reinforce or access the rate of learning
Cognitive Domain: Is an aspect of learning which deals with the learners intellect or intellectual development. A behavioural objective of remembering which had been learned.
Psychomotor Domain: The psuchomotor domain dels with the manipulative skills and body movement.
Affective Domain: It has to do with values and beliefs attitudes and appreciation interested social relation, emotional adjustment and life style.
6-3-3-4: The new system of education in Nigeria has spent out by the 1981 national policy on education briken down as:
6 – Years primary education
3 – Years junior secondary education
3 – Years senior secondary education
4 – Years tertiary or post secondary education
Education: A process which affect a change in an individual's behaviour leading to functionalism to self and the society at large.
Evaluation: An exercise carried out at the end of teaching and learning process to ascertain the extent to which laid down or specified educational objectives have been attained.
Test: An activity or exercise administered to a learner to measure skill ability knowledge or ideas (potentials).
Continuous assessment are the pivot on which the wheel of teaching and learning process rotates. However, this should not be the only consideration. Continuous assessment is actually one part of the effort to the achievement of the overall academic performance. We will be exploring on reviews of the influence of continuous assessment on the performance of academic students and this chapter presents a review of relevant literature of this study. It also highlights the conceptual framework, and related literature on continuous assessment, continuous assessment and studentsâ€Ÿ performance. the research is still a student.
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