IMPACT OF PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS ON SCHOOL ADJUSTMENTS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The school atmosphere and students' experiences both inside and outside of school may influence kids' motivation to participate and adjust to school programmes.
Psychologists have described adjustment in different ways, such as a process of sustaining harmonious relationships between a living entity and its environment (Raju & Rahamtulla, 2007).
According to Weiten and Lloyd (2003), adjustment refers to the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of daily life. Kulshrestha defined the adjustment process in Ugodulunwa and Anakwe (2012) as a technique for an individual to deal with stress, tension, conflicts,
and meet his or her requirements while also attempting to preserve harmonious relationships with the environment. This means that the individual and the environment are both crucial in adjustment (Ugodulunwa & Anakwe, 2012).
The degree of school acculturation necessary or the adaptations required to maximise the educational fit between pupils' individual features and the varied nature and requirements of learning environments is referred to as school adjustment.
School adjustment, according to Agbakwuru and Agbakwuru (2012), is the process of bringing an individual's behaviours in line with the norms of the school context. It is a constant process aimed at acclimating the individual to school life and culture.
School adjustment, according to Gates and Jersild in Mangal (2008), is a continuous process in which pupils vary their behaviours to generate a more harmonious relationship with the school environment. School adjustment can be thought of as a combination of academic, social, and emotional adjustment.
It can be seen as the process through which students establish a balance between their intellectual, social, and emotional demands and the educational environment.
The fit between a student's competencies and needs and the demands of the school environment determines a student's school adjustment.
According to Richard in Adeyemo (2005), pupils' adjustment is described as the ability to deal, manage their emotions and anatomy in order to behave in a socially suitable and responsible manner in order to fulfil educational demands and responsibilities.
This indicates that adjustment entails the ability of physiological and emotional components to cope with environmental social demands.
Students with higher adjustment potentials cope better with peer pressure, school life, academic problems, and the temptations of alcohol, drugs, and sex.
Students' competencies, such as social, behavioural, emotional, cultural, and intellectual competencies, are among the many aspects involved in school transition. Peer acceptance, drive, school interest, and other factors all play a role in their transition.
Social and emotional skills were discovered to be predictors of good school adjustment. Desocialization is the process of modifying or abandoning certain values, beliefs, and characteristics that one brings to school in reaction to the school experience.
Socialisation is the process of becoming acquainted with and adopting some of the new values, attitudes, ideas, and views introduced at school.
Several elements have been proposed as sources of effect on students' school adjustment. The way one sees himself or herself helps in adaption in every situation. Selfconcept is a belief about who you are.
Weiten and Llyod (2003) described self-concept as a set of ideas about one's own nature, distinguishing characteristics, and usual behaviours. According to Nwankwo (2010), self-concept is the understanding you have of yourself or what you believe about yourself.
One of the psychological elements that can predict pupils' transition to school is emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence,
according to Colman (2005), is the ability to monitor one's own and other people's emotions, to distinguish between different emotions and name them appropriately, and to use emotional information to drive thought and behaviour. He went on to define it as the ability to control one's own emotions in order to foster growth and well-being.
Emotional intelligence, according to Ramalingam (2006), is the awareness of one's ability to control one's emotions in a healthy and productive manner.
Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to monitor, access, express, and manage one's own emotions, as well as the ability to identify, interpret, and understand the emotions of others, and to use this information to influence one's thinking and actions (Weiten & Lloyd 2003).
Recent research with younger children consistently finds that friendship status and general peer acceptance both appear to influence a variety of adjustment outcomes.
When children are welcomed by their classmates and have one or more close, supportive friendships, they appear to be better adjusted generally (Ladd & Burgess, 2001).
According to Akinade (2008), a peer group is a tight group of people who are similar to themselves and share trust, affection, interests, acceptance, attitude, and a similar personality.
Peer groups are thus informal core groups of people within the social aggregate who have similar and equal status and who are typically of roughly the same age and interest.
Based on this context, the researchers decided to study the extent to which certain psychosocial characteristics can predict secondary school pupils' transition to school.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Although scholars have identified a link between psychosocial factors and maladjustment in children, it should be noted that secondary school students differ from typical elementary-aged children and thus respond differently to direct parental involvement in their lives (Criss, Pettit, Bates, Dodge, and Lapp 2002).
A combination of historical academic accomplishment and psycho-social factors (PSFs) can predict students' later achievement through the mental influence it has made, although the linkages between academic achievement and PSFs are not well understood.
Although earlier research has addressed the incremental contributions of PSFs in the prediction of achievement at the middle school level, there are still many problems that need to be answered.
It is unknown, for example, how student psychosocial characteristics combine with prior academic achievement and gender when predicting future academic achievement. It is unknown, for example, if PSFs have distinct impacts for pupils who differ in academic achievement or gender.
Adolescent inferiority complexes are becoming increasingly prevalent. We frequently observe adolescents doing things against their will because the majority of their friends or peers encourage them.
Because of this perspective, they blame society for their failure (external locus of control). Because the behaviour was not their choice, they are likely to suffer the brunt of the blame. This way of life has an impact on their growth.
Because of this concern, the current study believes it is vital to determine whether the majority of teenagers who lack confidence in themselves will blame their failures on society or on themselves.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study's goal was to look into the impact of psychosocial elements on secondary school students' school adjustments. As a result, the overall goal is stated in the specific objectives listed below, which are to:
Investigate the extent to which students' self-concept predicts their adjustment to secondary school activities.
Determine whether emotional intelligence predicts kids' responses to classroom activities.
Examine the impacts of peer group influence on adolescent adjustment in secondary school.
Investigate whether family background has a substantial impact on secondary school pupils' adjustment.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were posed based on the study's goal.
To what extent does pupils' self-concept influence their transition to secondary school activities?
To what extent does emotional intelligence predict students' school adjustment?
To what extent does pupils' adjustment to school depend on their peer group?
Investigate whether family background has a substantial impact on secondary school pupils' adjustment.
The following null assumptions were provided to guide the study's conduct:
Ho1: Self-concept does not significantly predict students' school adjustment.
Ho2: Emotional intelligence does not significantly predict students' school adjustment.
Ho3: Peer group does not significantly predict students' school adjustment.
Ho4: Family history does not significantly predict students' school adjustment.
1.6 SCOPE AND limitations OF THE STUDY
This study investigates the impact of psychosocial elements on secondary school students' school adjustments. The study would be limited to five secondary schools in the Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos.
The study will focus on the psychosocial variables of emotional intelligence, family history, parents' socioeconomic level, peer impact, and self concept on maladjustments among teenagers in secondary schools, with several selected schools in Abuja serving as case studies.
Aside from a lack of funds and time, the following constraints are anticipated in the study:
It is acknowledged that not every parent will fit neatly into a specific parenting style. These parent-child combinations will be removed from the sample.
Some students will assess their parents as fair when they are not, resulting in some bias in the parent nominations.
It is acknowledged that many adolescents may not provide accurate information on their maladjustments.
The accuracy of the data was limited by the researcher's skills and the validity of the tests conducted.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be valuable to many people who wish to know the aspects that can make or break adolescent students. As a result, the study is relevant in the following ways:
The Ministry of Education may use the study to better understand the impact of psychosocial elements on secondary school students' school adjustment and, as a result, spend greater attention on student social affairs management.
It will allow both public and private high schools to plan for psycho-social aspects impacting secondary school students in a methodical manner.
Other education stakeholders (parents, students, lecturers, support staff, donors) will utilise the study as a checkpoint to prevent such events in the future.
It has given scientific information to schools, parents, and students regarding the types of development that adolescents may face and how it influences their behaviour. It serves as a resource for future research that may look at the same variables.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Psychosocial refers to one's psychological growth within and interaction with a social environment.
Emotional Intelligence is the ability to recognise, control, and express one's emotions, as well as to handle interpersonal relationships wisely and empathetically.
Self-concept: A self-concept is a self-concept formed by one's views about oneself and the responses of others.
Peer Group: A group of people who are roughly the same age, status, and interests.
Locus of Control: The degree to which people believe they can control events that impact them is referred to as their locus of control.
Family background refers to a family's values, traditions, socio-cultural standing, and social economic status.
A school is an institution meant to educate students (or “pupils”) under the supervision of teachers.
Student Performance: This displays the outcomes of students' assessments, tests, and exams.
Education, in its broadest sense, is a type of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are passed down from generation to generation through teaching, training, or study.