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IMPACT OF AUDIO VISUAL TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ANINRI L.G.A)

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IMPACT OF AUDIO VISUAL TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING AND ING OF BIOLOGY AMONG DARY S IN ENUGU STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ANINRI L.G.A)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Audio-visual technology is now permeating the educational system as a tool for effective teaching and learning. With audio-visual aids, the communication of information can be done in a more effective manner and it can be an effective instructional medium for delivering information to the students. Audio-visual access to knowledge is one of the possibilities of information and that has a tremendous impact on learning.

The instructional media have emerged in a variety of resources, and equipment, which can be used to supplement or complement the teachers’ efforts in ensuring effective learning by students.

Conventional media technologies can no longer meet the needs of our teaching and learning processes; as a result, they are being replaced by audio-visual technology. This technology provides a learning environment that is self-paced, learner-controlled and individualized.

Audio-visual is the combination of various digital media types such as text, images, sound, and video, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or presentation to convey a message or information to an audience. Audio-visual means “an individual or a small group using a computer to interact with information that is represented in several media, by repeatedly selecting what to see and hear next” (Agnew; Kellerman & Meyer, 2012).

The power of audio-visual lies in the fact that it is multisensory, stimulating the many senses of the audience. It is also interactive, enabling the end-users of the application to control the content and flow of information.

This has introduced important changes in the educational system and impact the way teachers communicate information to the learners (Neo and Neo, 2011). Audio and visual materials like radio, projector, chalkboard, etc play a very important role in teaching/learning of biology among secondary schools in state especially. Some of them were Radio, cassette, blackboard (wooden), Graph, Television, Charts and numerous posters to educate people that attended the exhibition. (Akolo, 2011)

Basic knowledge in science is essential for all forms of modern development. To be able to appreciate, control and effectively tap from and utilize the resources of the natural environment, it is imperative to acquire scientific knowledge which is a basic tool for all forms of industrial and technological advancement of any nation.

Aware of this obvious fact, many nations, Nigeria inclusive have recognized the significance of science and technology and its develop endeavors. Onu (2017) asserts that no nation can become great, without science and technology. The expression of the need for scientific and technological literacy for all Nigerians was a discussion opined by Ibe et al. (2016a).

When Ibe said that we are living in a world where science and technology have become an integral part of the world’s culture, and thus reminded the nation of the need to keep pace with the world’s development in science and technology.

Speaking on the relevance of science, National Science Education Standards (2011) stated that science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the working of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe.

In order to guarantee the understanding of man and his environment, it becomes very necessary to re-examine the quality of our science Education, particularly biology as a popular science subject that records the largest number of students both at secondary and tertiary levels of Nigeria’s education system.

Audio-visual in Education has been extremely effective in teaching individuals a wide range of subjects. Audio-visual is changing the way we communicate with each other. The way people send and receive messages is more effectively done and better comprehended.

While a lecture can be extremely informative, a lecture that integrates pictures or video images can help an individual learn and retain information much more effectively. Using interactive CD-ROMs can be extremely effective in teaching students a wide variety of disciplines, most notably languages and music.

A multisensory experience can be created for the audience, which in turn, elicits positive attitudes towards its application. Audio-visual has also been shown to elicit the highest rate of information retention and result in shorter learning time.

However, information technology application serves different purposes, such as knowledge sharing-portal, search engines, public administration, social service, and business solution. Omagbemi, Akinola & Olayiwola (2014) supporting this view expressed that access to audiovisual information could stimulate changes and creates a conducive learning environment and make learning more meaningful and responsive to the localized and specific needs of learners.

However, Hoffman (2012) suggested that successful implementation of ICTs needs to address five interlocking frameworks for change namely the infrastructure, attitude, staff development, support (technical and administrative) and also sustainability and transferability.

There are many kinds of ICTs implemented at teaching and learning can be used in education for different purposes. For instance, some audiovisual aids help students with learning by improving the communication between the students and the instructors.

Studies have shown that, there are some factors that determine academics’ use and non-use of new technologies for teaching and learning in the advanced countries and these include, the needs of the learner, the characteristics and experiences of academics, the technology available, the environment within which

academics work and how valuable they perceive the use of technology to be for teaching their students (Chun and Kwan, 2011; Munoz – Repiso, and Tejedor Tejedor, 2010) and the disciplinary context of which the academic is part. However, research has demonstrated that there are disciplinary and subject differences in

the way ICTs are being used and adopted in teaching and learning (Zones; Zenios and Griffiths, 2014; Eynon, 2010). There is an urgent need to improve the quality of education to bridge the gap between developed and developing nations, and audio-visual instruction is considered as a necessary tool for this purpose.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The effective study of biology will contribute in the improvement of agriculture which is basically one of the  sustainable development goals to be achieved by the year 2030. Despite the importance of Biology to the individual and nation, reports have shown persistent poor students achievement in SSCE conducted by WAEC (Chief Examiners Report, 2015–2017).

The persistent poor performance of secondary school students in biological science most especially in external examination gives concern to parents, teachers, students and the stakeholders in science education.

Thus there is need for urgent provision on how to tackle the situation. Teachers need to use appropriate audio-visual resources in science teaching. Besides the problem of poor achievement in secondary school biology, the common practice in Nigeria secondary school is that most of the students choose biology as one of the science subjects that is very easy to pass and not because they are interested in the subject. Interest as a factor is very essential in teaching and learning of biology.

Ibe (2016b), conceptualizes interest as the feeling of one whose attention, concern or curiosity is particularly engaged by something. Onah (2015) stated that there is a very high positive relationship between interest and achievement.

According to Onah, the students with low interest in a subject are low achievers and those with high interest in a subject are high achievers. There is also a correlation between student’s interest and teaching methods used by teachers.

In view of this, some researchers suggest the use of innovative methods that will improve students’ achievements and facilitate their interest in Biology (Aniweze, 2014; Onochie, 2010; Eziokwu and Eze, ). Several innovative methods have been tried out and students still achieve poorly in Biology and show low interest in Biology.

These underscores the need of trying out an innovative teaching strategy and technique that lends itself to present age globalization; exploring ways audio visual technological contents (materials) can impact on achievement and interest of students in Biology who live in an information, communication and technological age.

Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to improve on the poor performance of students in secondary schools through the use of audio-visual resources.

1.3   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is basically to find out the impact of audio visual technology in teaching and learning of biology among secondary schools.  Specifically the study intends to:

  1. To examine the extent to which audio visual materials are used in teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools in Aninri L.G.A.
  2. To examine the type of audio-visual learning aids that secondary school teachers can use in teaching biology and their effect on students learning outcomes.
  3. To examine the impact of Audio-Visual materials on the teaching and learning of Biology among secondary school students in Aninri L.G.A
  4. To examine the barriers which made the use of audio-visual learning aids difficulty in Secondary Schools in Aninri L.G.A, state.
  5. To examine the relationship between use of Audio-Visual materials and the teaching and learning of Biology among secondary school students in Aninri L.G.A
  6. To proffer solutions to the problem  facing the use of audio and visual aid/materials

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTION

  1. What is the extent to which audio visual materials are used in teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools in Aninri L.G.A?
  2. What are the types of audio-visual learning aids that secondary school teachers can use in teaching biology and their effect on students learning outcomes?
  3. What are the impacts of Audio-Visual materials on the teaching and learning of Biology among secondary school students in Aninri L.G.A?
  4. What are the barriers which made the use of audio-visual learning aids difficulty in Secondary Schools in Aninri L.G.A, state?
  5. What is the relationship between use of Audio-Visual materials and the teaching and learning of Biology among secondary school students in Aninri L.G.A?
  6. What are the solutions to the problem facing the use of audio and visual aid/materials?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Hypo 1

H0: There is no impact of Audio-Visual materials on the teaching and learning of Biology among secondary school students in Aninri L.G.A.

H1: There is a significant impact of Audio-Visual materials on the teaching and learning of Biology among secondary school students in Aninri L.G.A.

Hypo 2

H0: There is no relationship between use of Audio-Visual materials and the teaching and learning of Biology among secondary school students in Aninri L.G.A.

H1: There is a significant relationship between use of Audio-Visual materials and the teaching and learning of Biology among secondary school students in Aninri L.G.A.

1.6 OF THE STUDY

It is hoped that this study will inspire teachers and inspectors of the State and Federal Ministries of Education to improve their competence and performance by adopting instructional audio – visual materials to suit their proper use in the classroom.

This will improve the teaching and learning of biology in particular and other subjects in general. This study also will help educational planners to lay more emphasis on teachers’ use of the audio – visual instructional materials when drawing up a biology curriculum.

The Federal Ministry of Education and State Education Commission, when recommending text books for biology, should ensure that text books should contain CD ROMS, films and tape recorded work of the same text books and that teachers should be made to have and use audio

– visual materials such materials should be available for the teachers’ use in the classrooms. Finally, this study shows that each of the students has absolute control of his potentials and as such is capable of developing his potentials and attains high academic excellence commensurate with those potentials through the use of audio – visual ads.

1.7    SCOPE OF THE STUDY 

The study is based on the impact of audio visual technology in teaching and learning of biology among secondary school, a case study of Aninri L.G.A, state.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the .

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Biology: The study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behaviour, origin, and distribution.

Education:  The wealth of knowledge acquired by an individual after studying particular subject matters or experiencing life lessons that provide an understanding of something. Education requires instruction of some sort from an individual or composed literature.

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