GENERATION OF MOBILE NETWORK AND CHALLENGES OF ADOPTION IN NIGERIA
GENERATION OF MOBILE NETWORK AND CHALLENGES OF ADOPTION IN NIGERIA
Background Of The Study
The internet was first introduced in the early 1990s, and usage increased after a 1995 internet workshop hosted by the Yaba College of Technology.
Since the introduction of internet access via mobile phone service in 2004, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) has licenced 38 internet service providers to sell internet services in Nigeria, and communications have evolved rapidly with the different generations of mobile networks.
We progressed from zeroth generation or pre-cellular network technology, which was an analogue system with a limited range, to the evolution of first generation network technology, which reduced the size of the transmitter and receiver and introduced the concept of cell.
Then came the 2G network, which included GSM architecture, which eliminated the roaming disadvantage of 1G while also adding the benefit of SMS via digital technologies. Following 2G, many changes were made to the basic GSM architecture in order to improve and make it more efficient.
HSCSD and GPRS are included in the 2.5G system. 2.75G EDGE was released, requiring simply a software change to current BS. Following such changes in designs and transmission methodologies, 3G was born, which employs both CS and PS depending on the type of traffic available.
HSDPA and HSUPA are combined in 3.5G -HSPA. 3.75G brought HPA+, often known as HSPA evolution, a 3GPP attempt to improve HSPA performance and capabilities. Then came the 4G network, which offered far better data rates than contemporary 3G networks.
Generations Of Mobile Networks In Nigeria
(0G) Mobile network of the Zeroth Generation
This was the first mobile communication technology, commonly referred to as the pre-cellular system. A central antenna was installed in each zone,
and powerful transmitters and receivers were utilised to broadcast and receive data, such as push to talk. This generation communicated in a half-duplex and analogue mode.
First Generation mobile network (1G)
In 1981, 1G was essentially an analogue cellular system with a circuit switched network design. The majority of the data flow was in the form of voice.
With a top speed of 1.9kbps, it utilised FDMA as a multiplexing mechanism. Total Access Communication System (TACS), Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), and Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) were the most successful standards. The main issues were limited services, cheap data rates, insufficient fraud protection, and poor security with no roaming.
Second Generation mobile network (2G)
The primary distinction between 1G and 2G is the analog/digital divide. With the advent of GSM architecture in 1991, 2G could now handle roaming with the Short Message Service (SMS) function.
The primary traffic in this circuit switching design was voice and data, which were multiplexed using FDMA and TDMA. The bandwidth speeds in this generation ranged from 9.6kbps to 14.4kbps.
EDGE 2.75 Generation
With the advent of 2.75G in 1999 and data rates of 384kbps, the term Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution was modified to Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution.
Global Evolution data rates. The modulation algorithm used in EDGE was eight-phase shift keying (8PSK). It merely requires a software upgrade to an existing base station and triples the data throughput of ordinary GSM.
Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) is a hybrid of EDGE and GPRS technologies. When EDGE and HSCSD are combined, the result is Enhanced Circuit Switched Data (ECSD), which provides data speeds three times faster than HSCSD.
(3G) Third Generation mobile network.
In the same year that GSM was commercially released, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) began development on the next generation mobile networks.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) was the name given to this new system. ETSI chose WCDMA as its 3G radio interface in 1997.
The Third Generation Partnership project (3GPP) organisation was in charge of 3G development. The core network is divided into two sections: circuit switched and packet switched.
as well as packet-switched. Multiple 3G technologies are described with their units, evenly and uniformly in all directions, but the user is only present in one direction at a time, therefore most of the BS energy is squandered.
HSPA is a combination of High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA). WCDMA is being upgraded to HSPA in order to boost data speeds. It uses shared channel transmission.
It employs multi-code transmission with higher order modulation, short transmission time intervals, rapid scheduling, rapid link adaptability, and rapid Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ). It just necessitates a software upgrade to existing WCDMA standards.
HSPA Evolution is a 3GPP programme to improve the performance and capabilities of HSPA. It improves HSPA spectrum efficiency by reducing HSPA latency and increasing data transfer.
(4G) fourth generation mobile network.
When it comes to 4G wireless networks deployed in 2010, speed and dependability are critical. The ability to access information at any time is a significant characteristic of 4G networks.
anyplace with seamless connectivity in heterogeneous contexts. It is expected to provide data rates ranging from 150Mbps to 1Gbps while moving and stationary.
It should also be able to integrate and recognise current available technology and utilise it. 4G offers a dependable network, enhanced capability, enhanced security, and global mobility. The following technologies are contributing to 4G.
(5G) Mobile network of the Fifth Generation
According to Patrick Waldemar, tomorrow's technology will provide incredible new features in terms of connectivity, capacity, and speed, but this will not happen in a vacuum.
The automobile industry understands the value of innovation in all aspects of its operations, including production, driving experience, and safety. As a result, all major automakers are seeking to create smarter, more connected vehicles.
It would be significantly more expensive and unproductive for all car manufacturers to design their own next-generation wireless communication systems to do this.
Smart cars will speed the development of 5G by specifying the criteria required for smart automobiles, allowing 5G to leave the test lab and join the real world.
(6G) Sixth Generation mobile network.
To achieve worldwide coverage, 6th generation (6G) wireless mobile communication networks will incorporate satellites. Four courtiers devised the global coverage systems.
The United States developed the global positioning system (GPS). China created the COMPASS system. The EU developed the Galileo system, whereas Russia built the GLONASS system. These in dependent systems make space travelling harder.
statement Of The Problem
Following a thorough examination of mobile networks and their use in Nigeria, it was discovered that there is a need for a study of their history, benefits, limitations, and problems of adoption in the country.
To contribute to modern technology, one must first understand the history of technology and its benefits and drawbacks.
This study paper assists readers in understanding the various mobile generations, benefits, limitations, and obstacles of adoption in Nigeria, and its step-by-step evolution up to the (6G) 6th Generation.
Aim Of The Study
The specific aim of the study is to do research on the generations of mobile networks and their adoption issues in Nigeria.
Objectives Of The Study
The purpose of this research is to investigate;
The Evolution of Mobile Networks
The Benefits of Mobile Networks
Mobile network limitations
Mobile network utilisation challenges
The study seeks to investigate the fundamental variables influencing the adoption of various mobile networks in Nigeria, as well as the existence of any relationships between them.
The following research questions led this study:
What are the various mobile network generations?
What are the benefits of using mobile networks in Nigeria?
What are the drawbacks/limitations of using different mobile networks in Nigeria?
What are the obstacles to the adoption of each of Nigeria's mobile networks?
Scope Of The Study
The study's specific objective is to investigate the history of mobile network generations in Nigeria, taking into account their benefits, limitations, and adoption issues.
The research was conducted in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo state, Nigeria. Due to the nature of the current study, secondary school students, university students, and certain civil workers were used to provide pertinent information on the benefits, drawbacks, and issues associated with mobile network usage in the country.
Significance of the Research
This study is pertinent to the educational sector, which includes primary and secondary school students, teachers, educational ministries, and educational scholars. It is also beneficial to policymakers, the government, mobile network providers, and society as a whole.
To students by seeing how they cope with the evolution of mobile networks in their country, putting them in touch with generations of technology that keeps them informed.
Teachers may find this study useful because it provides information on various mobile networks and their restrictions, which can help them enhance their teaching assistance.
It would assist ministries of education and educational scholars in developing curriculum resources for the educational sector.
The knowledge collected from this study will enable the government, policymakers, and mobile network providers establish policies, programmes, and change networks to help eliminate limits and improve mobile network usage in the country.
Limitations of the Research
The study's limitations are conditions beyond the researcher's control that are thought to limit the study's conclusion and application to other scenarios. Khan and Best (2009).
The survey did not include the full target population; rather, it included a small number of secondary schools, tertiary institutions, and government establishments from across Nigeria.
This made generalising the findings to the full population of the country difficult. However, the researcher primarily used probability sampling to guarantee that the study used a good sample size that was representative of the study features.
Operational Definitions Of Terms
In the context of this study, the following words are defined:
Mobile networks, often known as cellular networks, are communication networks in which the connectivity between end nodes is wireless.
Advantages are defined as “a condition or circumstance that places one in a favourable or superior position,” according to the online Oxford dictionary.
This is a constraint or set of limiting circumstances.
HSPA stands for High Speed Packet Access.
EDGE stands for Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution.