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Chapter one


Background for the Study

The internet was first introduced in the early 1990s, and usage increased following an internet workshop hosted by the Yaba College of Technology in 1995.

The introduction of internet access via mobile phone service in 2004 sparked further increases in internet use after the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) licenced 38 internet service providers to sell internet services in Nigeria, and communications have evolved rapidly since then with the various generations of mobile networks.

In this path of technological advancement, we progressed from zeroth generation or pre-cellular network technology, which was an analogue system with a limited range, to first generation network technology, which reduced the size of the transmitter and receiver and introduced the concept of cell.

Then came the 2G network, which included GSM architecture, which eliminated the roaming disadvantage of 1G while also providing additional SMS functionality through the use of digital technologies.

Following 2G, several changes were made to the basic GSM architecture to improve and make it more efficient. The 2.5G technology incorporates HSCSD and GPRS. 2.75G, known as EDGE, was introduced, requiring simply a software change to the existing BS.

Following such changes in architecture and transmission mechanisms, 3G emerged, which uses both CS and PS depending on the type of traffic available. 3.5G-HSPA combines HSDPA and HSUPA.

3.75G brought HPA+, often known as HSPA evolution, a 3GPP initiative to improve the performance and capabilities of HSPA. Then came 4G networks, which offered far better data rates than contemporary 3G networks.

Generations of mobile networks in Nigeria

(0G) Zeroth Generation mobile network.

This was the original mobile communication technology, often known as the pre-cellular system. A central antenna was installed per region, and powerful transmitters and receivers were utilised to send and receive data, such as push-to-talk. This generation communicated using both half duplex and analogue modes.

(1G) First-generation mobile network.

1G was essentially an analogue cellular system with a circuit switched network design that was introduced in 1981. The majority of data traffic was voice-based. It employed FDMA as a multiplexing mechanism, with a maximum speed of 1.9kbps.

The three most successful standards were Total Access Communication System (TACS), Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), and Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT). The main issues were limited services, cheap data rates, insufficient fraud protection, and poor security with no roaming.

(2G) Second-generation mobile network.

The fundamental distinction between 1G and 2G is the analog/digital divide. With the advent of the GSM architecture in 1991, 2G became capable of handling roaming via the Short Message Service (SMS) function.

The principal traffic in this circuit switching design was voice and data, which were multiplexed using FDMA and TDMA. Data rates in this generation ranged from 9.6 kbps to 14.4 kbps.

2.75 Generation – Edge.

With the introduction of 2.75G in 1999 with data speeds of 384kbps, initially known as Enhanced Data speeds for GSM Evolution was changed to Enhanced.

Data rates for global evolution. The goal behind EDGE was to use eight-phase shift keying (8PSK) modulation. It merely requires a software upgrade to the existing base station and enhances data rates thrice over normal GSM.

Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) combines EDGE and GPRS technology. If EDGE and HSCSD are combined, the result is Enhanced Circuit Switched Data (ECSD), which has three times the data rates of HSCSD.

(3G) Third-generation mobile network.

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) began work on next-generation mobile networks in the same year that GSM was commercially launched. This new technology was dubbed the Universal Mobile Telecommunications technology (UMTS).

In 1997, ETSI chose WCDMA as their 3G radio interface. The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) organisation spearheaded 3G development efforts. The core network is broken into two parts: circuit switches.

and packet-switched. Multiple technologies associated with 3G are explained with their units, evenly and uniformly in all directions, but the user is only present in one direction at a time, so the majority of the BS energy is lost.

Generation – HSPA

High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a combination of HSDPA and HSUPA. WCDMA’s data rates are improved by upgrading to HSPA. It uses shared channel transmission.

It employs multi-code transmission with higher order modulation, short transmission time intervals, quick scheduling, fast link adaptability, and fast Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ). It only requires a software upgrade to the existing WCDMA standards.

Generation: HSPA+


HSPA Evolution is a 3GPP programme designed to improve the performance and capabilities of HSPA. It improves HSPA spectrum efficiency, resulting in reduced HSPA latency and faster data delivery.


(4G) Fourth generation mobile network.

When it comes to 4G wireless networks built in 2010, speed and dependability are important factors. The essential aspect of 4G infrastructures is the ability to access information whenever.

anyplace with seamless connectivity in diverse surroundings. It is designed to provide data rates ranging from 150Mbps to 1Gbps in both moving and stationary positions. It should also be capable of integrating, identifying, and utilising existing available technology.

4G offers a dependable network, enhanced capabilities, higher security, and global mobility. The contributing technologies to the 4G are as follows.

(5G) Fifth Generation mobile network

Patrick Waldemar claims that tomorrow’s technology will provide fantastic new features in terms of connectivity, capacity, and speed, but it won’t happen in a vacuum. The automobile industry acknowledges the necessity of innovation in all part of its business, including production, driving experience and safety.

As a result, all major automakers are attempting to create smarter, more connected vehicles. Developing their own next-generation wireless communication systems would be far more expensive and counterproductive.

Smart cars will speed the development of 5G and define the criteria required for smart automobiles, allowing 5G to move beyond the test lab and into the real world.

(6G) Sixth generation mobile network.

Satellites will be integrated into sixth-generation (6G) wireless mobile communication networks to provide worldwide coverage. Four courtiers devised the global coverage systems. The United States developed the global positioning system (GPS).

China developed the COMPASS system. The EU developed the Galileo system, whereas Russia built the GLONASS system. These in dependent systems make space travelling harder.

Statement of the Problem

Following a thorough examination of mobile networks and their use in Nigeria, it was discovered that there is a need for further research into their history, benefits, limitations, and adoption issues in the country.

To contribute to modern technology, one must first understand its history, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. This research work assists readers in understanding the various mobile generations, advantages, limitations, and obstacles of adoption in Nigeria, as well as its gradual evolution up to the (6G) 6th Generation.

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