Project Materials







Oredo Local Government Area is one of the areas that make up Nigeria's Edo State. The investigation is focused on primary and junior secondary schools. At this level of education, every student contributes. The study of has a significant impact on a country's development. It is concerned with a country's development.

It is concerned with the development of responsibility for the child's socialization and humanization. The goal of this objective is to instill these desirable norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors in the growing child in order for him to fit into society.

In light of the foregoing, the objectives of primary and junior secondary schools cannot be overstated. According to the national education policy, primary and junior secondary schools in Nigeria should strive for;

a. Developing right citizenship as a foundation for effective participation in contributing to the life of the society.

b. Instilling in the child the ability to adapt to his changing environment.

c. Character and moral education, as well as the development of a sound mind

d. In addition, the primary school child should develop an appreciation for human dignity and liberty.

e. Developing sympathy and compassion for the less fortunate members of society

f. Develop a sense of respect and tolerance for the opinions of others, even when they differ, and

g. Increase your willingness to accept necessary changes.

The study of these objectives creates in the individual the awareness to restructure their goals and objectives in accordance with the acceptable norms and rules of society. This will result in the establishment of a just and egalitarian society, as well as a united, strong, and self-sufficient nation. Today, Nigeria's national education policy clearly defines our status, particularly in primary and junior secondary schools. It will be provided by;

The Federal Republic of Nigeria: National Policy on Education, Nigerian Education Research Council Press, 1981-the students as a core subject, implying that they cannot afford to do without it. What needs to be considered here is that, despite the current emphasis in Nigeria on science and technology, the national policy on education has given a place of eminence in the scheme of things.

The investigator, aware of the enormous importance of the study of to the individual and the entire community, decided to conduct a study of the problems associated with the teaching of, using Oredo Primary School in Edo State as a case study.


The importance of in a developing country like Nigeria cannot be overstated. To summarize, good knowledge and application of principles by citizens of this country will be of great benefit to the nation as a whole. It is a well-known fact that have not previously received adequate recognition as a core subject, but only now. There are bound to be factors associated with the teaching and learning of as a result of its recent inclusion in the curriculum as a core subject.

The acute shortage of professionally qualified teachers is one of the issues that this investigator wishes to investigate as a barrier to effective teaching and learning of the subject. The number of unqualified teachers in our schools is alarming, and there is no denying that effective teaching of any subject is dependent on the caliber of those charged with teaching the subject.

Aside from the fact that these teachers are not professionally qualified, they are more concerned with teaching personal business at the expense of the children in Oredo L.G.A. Primary school teachers are a contributing to students' poor academic performance.

According to the Daily Times, a survey conducted by the National Teacher Institute in November 1983 revealed that out of 300,000 teachers in the country, 200, 000 were unqualified. We believe that a student trained by a quack teacher in the shade of a bamboo tree will be denied the self-fulfillment and confidence that an adequate education provides. The performance of students differs between schools with enough qualified teachers to handle the various subjects and those with fewer qualified teachers.

According to Akor (1980), the significance of well-qualified and experienced teachers cannot be overstated. They are the necessary ingredients for students to learn effectively.

In his article, Dr. Titus Olikhens, a former Bendel State Commissioner for Education, stated that “a shortage of qualified teachers, insufficient provision of instructional materials and teaching methods, and a of incentives for study were problems militating against the achievement of the objectives of.”

Norman, A. Pebble argued that one of the factors influencing teachers' ability to provide better explanation is a lack of adequate concept and research method.

According to M. B. Oguniyi et al., “many teachers are not trained.” Few trained and qualified teachers remain in the classroom as they seek other forms of employment or higher education. According to Combei and Keeves, qualification and prior experience, perception of professional role, responsibility goal, and interest all influence the teaching of. In this context, schools with N.C.E. graduates teachers outperform schools with grade II teachers in terms of primary six certificate and junior secondary school results.

Another issue that has been raised is the scarcity of textbooks.

Another factor that contributes to poor performance in is a lack of textbooks. There aren't nearly enough comprehensive books for both teachers and students to use. Teachers in Oredo L.G.A. do not provide vivid information to pupils or students due to a lack of authentic textbooks. The few that are available are out of date.

According to M. B. Oguniyi et al, there is a severe shortage of textbooks and other printed materials. Additionally, funds are not readily available for teachers to purchase basic materials required for improvising apparatus.

In a similar vein, I. B. Otitoju stated that many student teachers are likely to find themselves in schools where there are no text books or instructional materials and the students teachers are expected to perform the miracle of teaching pupils, and that improvised materials will be beneficial to both the teacher and the students. The inability of teachers to use improvised materials kills students' interest in the subjects.

The teaching method

Another factor contributing to poor performance is the teaching method.

According to Bajah's book, “teaching at all levels of the country is out of date.” The traditional approach is the norm, with the teacher at the center of activities and memorization as the primary means of learning. Although memorization has its uses, it cannot arouse the pupil's genuine interest and imagination, nor can it elicit their participation in the learning process.

According to Abdullahi (1982), despite orientation courses, some teachers return to their schools to teach using the lecture method or textbook method. In this regard, students understand more in schools where teachers vary their teaching methods than in schools where teachers use the lecture method to impart knowledge to students. Different teaching methods help to cater for the various abilities of students in and make them more able to understand'.

According to Maduabum, “any teacher of must become familiar with teaching methods that will help pupils achieve learning objectives.” Further, he stated that several methods exist that teachers can use to ensure effective learning, such as the demonstration method, discussion method, project method, field trip, play away method, and so on.

According to Essien (1978), p. 81, he enumerated some common flaws in teaching in primary and junior secondary schools.

Inadequate planning

Lack of interest on the part of teachers

attempting an excessive number of problems in the lesson

The classroom's dimensions

Following the implementation of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) program in the country, there was a massive increase in the number of students enrolled in primary schools. Some schools have nearly 800 students enrolled. However, there is no doubt that there is less time available for individual attention to students. Most classrooms where group work is done are extremely noisy and rowdy, and the teachers are unable to control the students.

A situation like this does not allow for effective learning. Due to the large number of students in the classroom, teachers spend much of their teaching time controlling the students; as a result, much work is completed in a short period of time because teachers will now try to teach everything for the period in less time. There will be no time for the teacher to pay attention to individual students with unique needs. This does not allow for effective teaching of and has an impact on students' performance in.

Students' lack of interest and unfavorable environments

Their academic performance suffers as a result of an unfavorable environment and a lack of interest. In his lecture, S. G. Tunde (1987) stated that students tend to shy away and become frustrated from the subject because of their poor performance, which causes them to be weak academically, and others believe that are very easy, so little or no attention is paid to the subjects in the classroom.

In his book “Teaching Effectively,” A. M. Maduabum (1984) stated that “pupils come from different socioeconomic backgrounds.” Some may come from wealthy families, others from low-income families, and still others from middle-class homes.

A pupil's performance in school is influenced by the amount of time and type of home environment in which he studies, the extra moral activities in which he participates, and the manner in which he spends his leisure time, all of which are largely determined by his parents' socioeconomic status.

For example, a child who hawks rice, bananas, and beans after school and returns home exhausted is unlikely to outperform one who is provided with extra coaching courses at home after school and has a good time to study in a relatively stimulating intellectual environment. He went on to say that a learner's entry behavior is influenced by his prior background knowledge, which is related to the lesson at home.

It helps them understand the new lesson if he is reminded of it. He went on to say that “pupils' failure to grasp complex concepts was due to a lack of appropriate cognitive preparation.”

Inadequate instructional materials: Inadequate instructional materials generally impede the teaching and learning of. This fact cannot be overstated, as instructional materials are the only way for teachers to support verbal illustration and keep students' attention for an extended period of time.

M. A. Maduabun pointed out that if is to be properly learned, the classroom for sole reliance on inadequate school resources will create an undesirable class majority; he therefore suggested that teachers should endeavor to improve the quality of their teaching through improvisation, so as to make learning a bit more pleasurable act effective.

Teaching can be made more meaningful and concrete by making proper use of these materials. However, simply using these materials does not guarantee effective teaching. It is therefore the teachers' careful selection and skillful handling of these instructional materials that will result in useful teaching and learning.

According to M. B. Ogunniyi et al., there is an active shortage of textbooks and other printed materials in our schools. He claims that because funds are not readily available to purchase basic materials needed for improvement, many teachers are unmotivated to teach.

Teacher Dissatisfaction

Another factor contributing to students' poor performance in is the teacher's lack of motivation.

Teachers' frequent strikes in Edo State's Oredo L.G.A. as a result of poor service conditions clearly demonstrate that teachers are not motivated to teach well. A teacher who is unmotivated will teach the subject ineffectively.

According to M. B. Ogunniyi, many teachers are not trained in the subject, and the few who are trained and qualified leave the classroom to pursue other avenues of employment or higher education because they are unmotivated.

The salaries of teachers are not always paid on time. A teacher who is hungry will not be motivated to teach.

Teachers' Personalities and Attitudes

Teachers' personalities and dispositions have a significant impact on the social and moral behavior of their pupils or students. Teachers lack the social skills that they want their students to have. The majority of teachers in this local government act in ways that are contrary to the society's expected norms and values. In order to find a solution to the problems listed above, the investigators decided to focus on the following specific questions:

1. Does the quality of teachers have an impact on academic performance?

2. What effect does teachers' prepared notes have on academic performance?

3. What influence do textbooks have on academic performance?

4. Do teachers' personalities and dispositions influence academic excellence?


The study aims specifically at analyzing and diagnosing the problems or factors responsible for pupils poor performance in, as well as providing suitable suggestions that will help improve the teaching and learning of in primary and junior secondary schools in Oredo L.G.A.

It is hoped that the findings of this project work will be of enormous benefit to teachers throughout the Local Government Area, as they will be exposed to the factors responsible for pupils' poor performance, which is threatening educational development. As a result, they will be able to deal with such issues effectively and on time.


This research will hopefully be beneficial to teachers in Edo State in general and Oredo L.G.A in particular. This discovery will inform the classroom teacher about the methodology to use when teaching. It will also be beneficial to the students because their abilities in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains will improve.

The students' thinking abilities and creative abilities will improve. It will also go a long way toward reforming individuals and forcing them to conform to societal norms and values. In nation building and national reconstruction for the individual and Nigerian society's social and economic emancipation.

Furthermore, it will instill in the students a spirit of inquiry and creativity through exploration of nature and the local environment. Make them aware of the objects around them and what they are used for, for example.


can be defined as the investigation of man and his social and physical surroundings. It is also how man affects the environment and how the environment affects mankind.



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