evaluation OF BENISEED AND DRUMSTICK TREE LEAF MEAL AS SOURCES OF METHIONINE IN BROILER DIETS
EVALUATION OF BENISEED AND DRUMSTICK TREE LEAF MEAL AS SOURCES OF METHIONINE IN BROILER DIETS
Beniseed and Moringa leaves underwent proximate and amino acid analysis. In order to assess Beniseed, two feeding trials were undertaken after that.
Methionine sources for broiler diets could include drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera) and sesame (Sesamum indicum) leaf meals. In the first experiment, the growth rates of 40 grill chicks fed either raw or cooked moringa leaf meals were compared.
To investigate whether raw Moringa leaf meal can be fed to grill diets without risk, there were two replicates of 10 birds each for the raw and cooked versions of the moringa leaf meals.
In trial two, a total of 252 grill birds were utilised for the starter and finisher stages of the experiment on seven nutritional treatments, including a control, three beniseed diets, and three diets including Moringa leaf meal.
Beniseed and Moringa leaf meal were not included in the control diet. The three beniseed diets included 6% beniseed plus 0.25 percent methionine, 6% beniseed plus 0.12 percent methionine, or 6% beniseed without additional methionine.
The three Moringa diets also included 6% Moringa leaf meal plus 0.25 percent methionine, 6% Moringa leaf meal plus 0.12 percent methionine, or 6% Moringa leaf meal without additional methionine.
Beniseed had a crude protein content of 23.13%, raw Moringa leaf had 25.25%, and cooked Moringa leaf had 22.44%, according to the results of the proximate analyses. Beniseed contained 0.99% cystine and 0.87% methionine, according to the amino acid content.
On the other hand, a moringa leaf contained 0.26% methionine and 0.17% cystine. According to the findings of experiment 1, there were no appreciable differences between grill chicks fed raw Moringa leaf meal and those fed cooked Moringa leaf meal in terms of final weights (749.85g/bird and 754.27g/bird) or average daily gains (25.31g/bird and 25.47g/bird, respectively).
The cost of feed per kilogramme of growth was considerably (P0.05) greater for broiler chicks fed cooked Moringa leaf meal than for those fed raw Moringa leaf meal.
According to the results of experiment 2's starter and finisher phases, broilers fed Moringa leaf meal at a 6% dietary level had better outcomes in terms of final weight and average daily increases than broilers fed the control or the beniseed diets.
6% Moringa leaf meal-fed birds performed similarly to those on the control diet (P>0.05) and significantly better than those on beniseed-fed birds without additional methionine (P0.05). In terms of the desirable sections of the carcass (breast, thighs, and drumsticks),
there were no significant variations in the carcass characteristics of the broilers at nine weeks of age (P>0.05) among dietary regimens.
Grill finisher diets could contain 6% of raw moringa leaf meal without having a negative impact on growth. Additionally, it was found that using Moringa leaf meal in grill diets can substitute all or part of the necessary amount of supplementary methionine.
The cost of feed accounts for between 60 and 70 percent of the overall cost of production in a chicken operation, making it the most crucial input (Smith, 2001). Animal feed resources are becoming increasingly scarce in the tropics. The production of more cattle is severely limited by this (Sarwatt, 1989).
The potential for increased output is clear, but addressing the issue of nutritional inadequacy comes first. According to Aduku (1992), a sufficient supply of affordable and well-balanced feed is necessary for successful animal production.
Therefore, it's critical to make use of the numerous feed ingredients that are offered at reasonable prices at particular times of the year (Kekeocha, 1984). Beniseed and Moringa leaf are two examples of these substitute feed items that could be used to cut costs.
The Pedaliacea family includes the annual tropical crop known as beniseed. The crop is daylength-sensitive and has its origins in Africa. There are, in fact, long-day and short-day forms (Anochili and Tindall, 1986). The hue of the seeds varies depending on the cultivar.
There are four colours: white, black, brown, and yellow (Brouk, 1975). White seeds from the white beniseed (Sesamum indicum) can yield up to 50% oil.
Sesamum radiatum, a different species, contains seeds that are black to dark brown and contain 32 to 37 percent oil (Anochili and Tindall, 1986). In Nigeria's Guinea Savannah, beniseed is widely produced (Eyo et al., 2004).
The dish contains a lot of methionine and is a strong source of protein. In the tropical areas where the crop is abundantly grown, it is widely employed as a protein supplement in poultry and swine diets (Gohl, 1975).
The drumstick tree, Moringa oleifera, is a species of the Indian-born Moringacea family (Olson, 2001). The most popular English term for Moringa oleifera is drumstick tree. Horseradish, Mother's Best Friend, Radish Tree, and West Indian Ben are some more English names for the Moringa plant.
According to Makkar and Becker (1996), the plant is a tiny tree with thick grey bark, fragrant white blooms, and long green pods. Although the plant can be found in most of the tropics, it is most frequently found in Africa, Asia, and America.
Moringa oleifera, one of 13 kinds of drumstick trees, is the most prevalent (Muriella, 2007). Methionine levels in the leaves have been observed to be high (Gupta et al., 1989).
According to Makkar and Becker (1996), the moringa leaf is also known to contain several antinutritional elements such phytic acid, tannins, and saponins.
Methionine is involved in the metabolism of farm animals in a number of significant ways. It serves a special function as the starting amino acid for all polypeptide synthesis in addition to being a component of proteins.
It contributes methyl groups to a number of significant synthetic processes, and the production of cystine can exploit its sulphur moiety (Saunderson and Mackinlay, 1990).
Additionally, methionine increases the effectiveness of feed utilisation. According to Oluyemi and Roberts (1988), it lowers mortality, discourages cannibalism, increases egg size, and inhibits the buildup of extra fat in layers.
The high cost of synthetic methionine imports into the nation, which raises the expense of creating chicken feeds, served as the impetus for this study. Both beniseed and moringa leaves are readily available local resources that contain significant amounts of methionine.
In addition to adding other nutrients and bulk to the diets, it is believed that the utilisation of these two natural sources of methionine will increase growth and partially or entirely eliminate the requirement for supplementary methionine in feeds.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
I The first goal of this study was to ascertain the approximate compositions of meals made from roasted beniseed and Moringa leaf.
II To identify the amino acid compositions of roasted beniseed and Moringa leaf meal.
III. To ascertain whether feeding Moringa leaf meal in its raw form to grill chicks may be done without having a negative impact on their ability to grow.
IV. To assess the nutritional value of roasted full-fat beniseed and Moringa leaf meal in the starting and finisher diets for broilers.
V. To further explore the potential for using roasted full-fat beniseed and Moringa leaf meal as sources of methionine to substitute supplementary methionine in the starting and finisher diets for broilers.