Project Materials




Need help with a related project topic or New topic? Send Us Your Topic 



18 weanling pigs between the ages of 9 and 10 weeks were used to investigate the effects of
Effects of pigeonpea substitution for soyabean meal on behaviour and onset of puberty in
weaning pigs.

The pigs were divided into three groups (A, B, and C) of six each at random.
and kept in three separate pens.

For ten weeks, the pigs in the three groups received the
group A soyabean meal, group B roasted nuts as the only sources of dietary protein
pigeonpea meal and untoasted pigeonpea meal from group C.

Each group of pigs received 2% of their
Live body weight measurements are taken each day between 9 am and 3 pm. Prior to the start of the dietary
Pigs in each group were weighed before treatments (day 0).

Blood samples were taken concurrently.
and after that each animal’s packed cell volume (PCV), serum, and other parameters were determined each week.

Luteunizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) biochemistry assays. Weekly
The pigs’ body weights were recorded up until the conclusion of the investigation. Total protein in serum was measured.

serum albumin was measured using the Bromocresol Green method, not the Biuret method. In the PCV,
microhaematocrit method is used to determine the value, but the hormonal test (follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
ELISA, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent test, was used to measure and leutinizing hormone (LH).

Low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and cholesterol were
determined using accepted practises. Data obtained from the study was only one way
a variance analysis.

The Duncan’s multiple range test was used to distinguish between different means. Significance
was acknowledged at 0.05. The mean live body weights and mean live weight variations did not differ significantly (p>0.05).

PCV for each group over the course of the investigation. The average level of total serum protein in group C’s pigs
was considerably (p0.05) lower in week two compared to groups A and B, while group B
considerably (p0.05) greater in week four compared to groups B and C. There were no notable deviations.

The mean blood albumin levels across all groups were (p>0.05). The level of globulin in group A was
whereas those of group B were considerably (p0.05) greater than those of groups B and C of pigs,
0.05) less favourable than that of group C. Group A significantly (p 0.05) outperformed group B during the course of the trial.

greater mean blood LH and FSH levels compared to groups B and C. average cholesterol
On week four, the level of group C pigs was considerably (p0.05) lower than that of groups A and B.

In week five, the of group B were considerably (p 0.05) higher than those of groups A and C. They weren’t
The mean HDL levels in groups A, B, and C varied significantly in weeks one and two (p>0.05).

However, group B had considerably lower mean HDL levels (p0.05) than group A and C.
B in the third and fourth weeks. After that, at week five, the level in group A pigs considerably increased.

higher than those in groups B and C (p 0.05). Groups A and B had considerably higher mean scores (p 0.05).
LDL values compared to group C participants throughout the research.

The study’s findings demonstrated that follicular waves and development rate were identical in
all therapy teams. The study found that pigeonpea meal can be an effective alternative.

Weaning pigs’ soyabean meal diet and the fact that toasting pigeonpeas has no impact on their nutritional value
Pigeonpea food benefits weaning pigs.


Approximately 675 million rural poor people today depend on their ownership of livestock for their livelihood.
depend on animals for revenue or subsistence in part or in full. (LID, 1999).

These are fictional.
among the people who produce chevon, mutton, beef, and pork, as well as milk,
hens and eggs.

Livestock are crucial as a source of food depending on the nation and level of production.
significant source of family income, or as a savings institution, in addition to offering
employment chances for individuals of society with and without education.

The demand for and consumption of animal products had increased on a global scale.
However, compared to the developed world, this growth is bigger in the developing world.

Here is
due to changes, increased urbanisation, and rising prosperity in third-world countries
in eating habits. Because of this, the productivity of monogastrics has increased significantly.

63% of the meat consumed worldwide in 1993 came from (Swine and Poultry) (FAO, 2000).
As 44% of all animal protein consumed globally today is pork, it is the most widely consumed meat.
Pork and swine products are the source of consumption (FAO, 2001).

There have been recent
a few increases in swine product manufacturing and marketing. This has been blamed on
a rise in average income for the populace, the eradication or loosening of taboos that
pork consumption was formerly restricted.

Pig farming has a significant potential to generate substantial returns on investment. This is as a result of
species-specific characteristics include high fecundity, feed conversion efficiency, early maturity, and
brief generating time.

Additionally, they are versatile creatures that produce 40% of the world’s meat.
bristles, market, and cooking fats (Fanstin et al., 2003). enhancing pig farming in tropical

Communities with less resources may be less likely to get porcine cysticercosis.
The main cause of this issue, which results in a high rate of pork rejection at slaughter, is management.

There are an estimated 923 million pigs in the world, of which 552 million are in
There are 18 million people in Africa, 72 million people in Asia, 194 million people in Europe. United States

The FAO, a United Nations agency, estimates that there were 454 million pigs in the world in 2007.
USA: 59 million Chinese, 20 million Vietnamese, 17 million Indians, 10 million Japanese, 5 million
0.5 million in Tanzania, and million in Nigeria (FAO, 1981).

According to FAO data from 1981, there are 7.3 million pigs in Tropical Africa. The
The West African coastline region, from Senegal to Nigeria, has the highest population of pigs in this region.

The country with the largest population, Cameroon, has over 50% of the world’s population. In total, nine
countries in Western Africa, four in Southern Africa, two in Central, and one in Eastern Africa
100,000 or more heads of pigs are present (FID, 1991). The distribution is ecologically relevant.

conditions, religious prohibitions, especially Islamic taboos, and historical development initiatives
Policies of the state (Meyn, 1978b). Three fundamental manufacturing systems were described by the same author,
systems that are conventional, commercial, and advanced.

The smallholder system is the conventional one.
Agricultural communities. Animals used in this production technique are typically native, unimproved species.
breeds that mostly graze on farm garbage and consume home waste.

A number of
very few fixed investments and a minimally supplemental management style
housing, food, and medical treatment, including vaccinations and deworming in particular.

Apparently, Meyn
Only 3–4 piglets per sow wean each year, and the carcass weight is rarely noticeable (1978b).
more than 50 kg. Production is intended for consumption in the home or community.

Managed by pigs
Traditionally, Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda (East Africa) provide roughly 80% of the world’s pigs.

70% in Botswana (Setschewaelo, 1992), 75% in Zimbabwe, and 65% in Sahel nations (Chad,
Senegal), with 80% in Namibia (FAO, 1998a, b). Niger, Mali, Guinea Bissau, and Senegal.

The commercial production system, which focuses on the market, is the second production system.
demands. This technique uses concentrates for feeding and includes expenditures for ongoing maintenance.

investments and inputs. Breeds having higher feed conversion rates are utilised in this system, and
These are typically more capable of performing than native breeds. exotic creatures as a result
The animals of choice in this system are those with clearly defined economic features.

The advertisement
Systems are typically self-sustaining and divided into breeding and fattening areas.
units. They can be classified according on the final product they are known for, such as fat, lard, or

There are two forms of commercial production, according to FAO (1983); a commercial
improved breeds fed concentrates and having relatively small herd sizes characterise a small-scale operation.

really good output. However, the commercial large-scale system is distinguished by enhanced
breeds that are primarily restricted to institutional and government/parastatal farms.

are declining across the board, but particularly in Tanzania, Nigeria, South Africa, and Vietnam.
and they face a grim future (FAO, 1983).

Mixed/integrated pig farming is also widespread,
wherein local feedstuffs like leftover cereal and potatoes serve as the primary source of food for
pigs. In return, they give the land manure to increase its fertility.

FAO (1983) asserts that the combination of
The cultivation of livestock and crops in the tropics offers promising opportunities for economic and
organic farming-based sustainable agriculture.

The various systems’ economies are
Prices and price differences for various feedstuffs and meats play a significant role in determining the outcome.
generated properties (Serres, 1973).

Compared to Europe, Africa has a considerably larger demand for fat meat.
Industrialised nations, which partially explains why pig meat is more expensive in Africa than beef.

(1973 Serres). According to the paper, this is currently declining as a result of the rising
awareness of the health effects of meat quality.

In a production hierarchy overall, advanced systems are the last to be introduced. Central
Units take part in stud breeding, selection, and feeding and medical experimentation. Other

units that only produce piglets, which nevertheless calls for a high level of management,
While fattening is done in smallholdings or specialised large businesses.

It is believed that the long-term development path for pig production in is one of stratification and specialisation.
Tropical Africa, but it hasn’t been widely adopted yet (Serres 1973).

Pork is in greater demand on the global market as a result of the growing
consumers. Global manufacturing activities have expanded as a result (Serres, 2001).

Pork production, according to Tewe and Egbunike (1988), is the most expedient method of
addressing the lack of animal protein in Africa.

This is because pigs are not only used for reproduction, but
great effectiveness at converting nutrients into high-quality protein in the form of
(Pork) meat.

Given that pigs have the potential to be both prolific and quickly developing animals, as well as
A good feed to meat converter, Nigerian farmers have started engaging in intensive
Pig breeding (Adesehiwa et al., 1998).

Unfortunately, the government has not yet acknowledged the
possible advantages of pig farming and how to make pig farming more friendly to the general public

Adesehinwa et al.’s findings from 1998 showed that initiatives aimed upon
Improved pork will be a part of the animal protein supply at a lower cost for human consumption.

Additionally, they stated that commercial manufacturing using a semi-intensive system
due of its favourable rate of return on investments, is growing in popularity. production of pigs
seems to have the most promising prospects for a sufficient source of animal protein in the
growing world.

Diseases, stress, and a lack of genetic diversity are all listed as barriers to swine production.
nutrition and breeds (Petrus et al., 2011).

They noted decreased feed availability both as well as
especially throughout the past ten years due to increased animal productivity, roughages and concentrates
events taking place across the globe.

Additionally, they said that investigations are being conducted.
Avoid using unconventional feed components that have only limited human benefits.

to improve the nutritional value of poor quality diet or to compete with humans. It is
it was anticipated that using unconventional feed ingredients will lower the cost of feed and
increase manufacturing activity profits (Onu and Okongwu, 2006).

Traditionally, pigs are
Diets include elements that provide a balanced ration during feeding, typically including,
water, sugars, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. The protein found in the tropics

The source in animal feed is typically the most expensive and resource-constrained. So, a decrease in the
Alternative protein sources to those used in standard production will increase the cost of production.

sources that are expensive or easily accessible include soybean meal, groundnut cake, fish meal, etc.

Cajanus cajan, a tropical plant, has characteristics that make it a potential crop.
that, despite having a high crude protein and calorie content, has hardly ever been used in the formulation of pig feed.

profiles. In most tropical regions where it is grown, it is used as human food and a vegetable.
present or developed. Wallis et al (1986) claim that India is the world’s top producer of pigeon pea.
yet significant output is also done in Africa.

It is quite likely that it will get worse.
utilised to create rations that are fed to livestock. Additionally, pigeonpea has reportedly been used in
nutritional needs of pigs (Falvey and Visitpanich 1979).

They showed that its addition to a ration
corn, rice bran and chopped banana stalk for developing pigs increased living weight
gains. Pigeonpeas come in several types that are grown in various tropical regions with diverse climates.

nutritional attributes. According to Salunkhe et al. (1985), the chemical and proximate values of
Various factors, including cultivar, soil type, and geographic location, have an impact on pigeonpea seeds.

Pigeonpeas contain antinutritional compounds that make it difficult to use them effectively as cattle feed.
Protease inhibitors, trypsin, and chemotrypsin inhibitors, among others (Visitpanich et al.
Betterham et al., 1993; et al., 1985a).

Pigeonpea meal’s nutritional value can be increased by
Heating can reduce the amount of anti-nutritional substances (Visitpasnich et al., 1985b; Singh,
1988), boiling (Rani et al., 1996), roasting (Simoongwe, 1998), extraction (Benjakul et al., 1998), and others.

Cooking (Aarti et al., 2001), as well as other methods, have enhanced protein and starch digestibility.
in 1996 (Rani et al.).

In our environment, there are numerous additional components that might be used as cattle feed.
However, due to improper comprehension of their benefits and lack of widespread use,
nutritional value or the paucity of studies in this area. Pigeonpea was once widely consumed.

In Nigeria, West Africa, in the subhumid and savannah-derived and savannah belts as
a component of human meal.

However, its application in animal feed is either not known because of
either there hasn’t been any research in this area or it has a high food value among the people. Moreover,
Production is so constrained that it has an impact on the world market.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the possible use of pigeonpea meal as feed.
Weanling pigs are fed an ingredient made from a pigeonpea cultivar from a sub-humid zone. Such was
based on its well-known nutritional content, accessibility, and expensive cost-benefit ratio.

Due to the high expense of the ingredients used in swine diets in tropical countries
especially the protein-rich ingredients like soybean meal, fish meal, or groundnut

Pigs are frequently underfed in an effort to cut costs, which results in subpar performance. Pigeonpea
(Saxena et al., 1987) Seed is extremely proteinous and contains 20–25% proteins.

is consequently considered a promising protein source for cattle feed.
Pigeonpeas have only ever been used in our area as human food, in whole or in part, up to this point. It is
abundant, inexpensive, and if production is planned, might become a standard agricultural practise.

make that is infinitely useful. With its 21% crude protein and 1-8% crude fat, it is thought that
Due to its high fibre content, it may be utilised in place of traditional animal feed protein sources like soybean.

if used appropriately, cotton seed cake, meal, fish meal, groundnut cake, or even cotton seed.
Improved production of healthier pig and poultry will result from the proper application of this feed component.

subsequently increases the availability of livestock goods like meat, having an effect
regards food security favourably.

The purpose of this study was to assess:
1. Pigs fed with toasted and untoasted pigeonpea meal performed differently.

2. The relative benefit of soybean meal over pigeonpea in a weanling pig’s diet.

3. the impact of different formulations on young gilts’ ability to reach puberty.

The results of this study will contribute to the evaluation of:
i. Possible substitution of pigeonpea for soybean in the diet of pigs

ii. effects of the untoasted pigeon pea’s antinutritive component(s).

iii. Effect of heat treatment on the pigeon pea’s anti-nutritive components.

Weanling pigs will grow faster and reach puberty on a diet based on pigeonpeas.
enhance the pigs’ output as a result.

Need help with a related project topic or New topic? Send Us Your Topic 



Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.