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ELECTORAL VIOLENCE & DEMOCRATIC CONSOLIDATION IN NIGERIA

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ELECTORAL VIOLENCE AND DEMOCRATIC CONATION IN ERIA, A CASE OF SOKOTO STATE 2009-2011 ELECTION

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv-v

Table of Content vi-viii

Abstract ix

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

Background of the Study………………………………………. 1-2Statement of the Research Problems …………………………. 2-3

1.3 Research  …………………………………………… 3

Aim and Objectives of the Study …………………………….. 3Significance and Justification of the Study 4Scope and Limitations of the Study 4-5Methodology 5Population/Sample  6Sampling Method 6-7Instrument of Data Collection 7Definition of Key Terms ……………………………………. 7-8

CHAPTER TWO: Review and Theoretical Frame Work

The Concept of Election 9-11Electoral Violence 12-14Patterns and Perspective on Electoral Violence 14The Concept of Democracy 14-17Democratic Consolidation 17-18Theoretical Frame Work 19-20

CHAPTER THREE: Historical Development of Electoral Violence and

Democracy in Nigeria

Electoral Violence in Nigeria …………………………………. 21-23Electoral Violence in the Second Republic …………………… 24-27Electoral violence in the 2011 election ……………………….. 27-34Historical background of  state 35-37Democratic Consolidation Process in Nigeria:  in Focus 37-39Governorship Tussles and Electoral Violence in  State 40-44

Between 1999 and 2009

CHAPTER FOUR: Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1 Introduction 45

4.2 Data Presentation ……………………………………………… 45-53

4.3 Discussion of Findings 53-54

Bibliographys

ABSTR

Nigeria has earned an appellation for herself as a show case of Africa’s democracy for several score of s. Ironically, every journey towards such democratic process/experience had been laden with electoral violence even since the colonial days. With the rebirth of African liberalism and the wave of democratic consolidation process that swept across the globe/world in the 1990’s, electoral violence returned in a more frightening dimension in most African states. It is, therefore, against this background that this study examined the challenges of electoral violence in Nigeria with a particular focus on state 2009 to 2011. Methodologically, the study employed quantitative method through the use of both primary and secondary sauces of data. Thus questionnaire was used as a tool of data collection while data collected from the documentary (secondary source such as newspapers, official document and journal) were analyzed. Theoretically, the elite theory was adopted in this study. The framework seems to link the political elite and how they gain power and maintains it in the society. Also the theory shows how elite perpetuate electoral violence for their own selfish interest. The relevance of the framework is underscored by the fact that in most African countries, the various conflict that usually develop during democratic process are mostly of the elite kinds, which in Nigeria are essentially organized around competing materialistic interests of various sections in the society that soon after, the political environment was hostile to development and internal struggle for power was the absolute focus that led to electoral violence. The study therefore revealed that cross materialism, weakness of economic foundation of democracy and the value placed on politics by the political elites are very significant in explaining the occurrence of this violence. also the strategy of violence in the bid to achieve selfish ends, mostly through engaging unemployed youths and thugs. in this respect, the study conducted revealed that the electoral violence has continued to threaten the democratic experience in state and Nigeria at large. This has resulted in serious loss of lives and properties and brought about political apathy in the democratic process thereby engendering legitimacy crises as well as hampering the ability of government to delivers on its promises of democracy can neither be sustained nor consolidated.

ELECTORAL VIOLENCE AND DEMOCRATIC CONATION IN ERIA, A CASE OF SOKOTO STATE 2009-2011 ELECTION

ELECTORAL VIOLENCE AND DEMOCRATIC CONATION IN ERIA, A CASE OF SOKOTO STATE 2009-2011 ELECTION

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