Project Materials




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Projects are used in all economic and non-economic domains to organise activities with the goal of achieving desired goals. Projects, project portfolios, programmes, and organisational strategy all have a direct relationship. Projects are used to implement strategies as the primary means of creating and coping with change (Cleland, Gareis, 2006).

According to Meskendahl (2010), projects are the central building block utilised in implementing strategies, hence project performance determines corporate success.

A project is an individual or collective endeavour that may involve research or design and is meticulously planned, typically by a project team, to attain a specific goal. Time Magazine, New York, 2009.

A project is also temporary because it has a set start and end date, as well as a defined scope and resources (Cathy, 2009). A project is distinct in that it is not a routine action, but rather a specific sequence of procedures meant to achieve a single aim.

It is critical to plan properly based on these features in order to obtain the desired outcome. Thus, project planning can be described as a subset or branch of project management that involves the use of schedules to plan and then report progress within the project context.

The construction business was defined as disconnected by Dubois and Gadde (2002), and McKinsey (2017) verified this. There is a lack of coupling between the construction project and its subcontractors,

as well as between the project and its parent firm and other projects. This makes it difficult to successfully coordinate resources on a portfolio level inside the contractor, as resources are frequently drawn from a common resource pool (Engwall and Jerbrant 2003).

As a result, the construction sector encompasses a diverse variety of loosely coupled organisations that jointly construct, alter, and repair a diverse range of building and civil engineering projects. Before beginning any activity, individuals, organisations, and governments must conduct some type of project planning for building and civil engineering projects.

According to Lock (2002), one of the most distinguishing features of a project is its originality; it is a risky and uncertain undertaking. No two projects are ever identical, and even repeated projects will differ from their predecessors in one or more commercial, administrative, and physical aspects.

Construction is also distinguished by time and cost-intensive manufacturing processes, which make it vulnerable to project risks and failure, particularly in terms of time and money. In practise, this means that construction project performance is typically poor.

Construction projects, in particular, are frequently delayed and overbudget. This is due to issues encountered not just during project scheduling, but also during linked activities.

Laryea and Hughes (2009) investigated how Ghanaian contractors incorporate financial risk into their bid rates. The investigation revealed that, aside from having risk allowances as lump payments or percentage allowances, the method used is neither scientific nor evidence-based.

Ojo (2010) discovered that design modifications, financial losses, and poor specifications were the risk factors that had the most influence on construction sites, however the study did not highlight any Project project management (PRM) technique utilised by Contractors to respond to such risks.

Another study conducted in Nigeria on this topic focused on the evaluation of important risk indicators and mitigation techniques for construction projects (Dada, 2010). Despite the fact that the research identified financial, political,

and physical threats as the most significant, the deployment of a contingency fund and insurance coverage was determined to be the most effective means of risk mitigation.

However, no research has been conducted on the PRM practises employed by Nigerian contractors in redevelopment projects, along with the associated concerns and obstacles in terms of scoping.


Julius Berger Nigeria Plc is a Nigerian construction business based in Abuja FCT, with headquarters at 10 Shettima A. Munguno Crescent | Utako 900 108 | FCT Abuja.

The company is represented across Nigeria in structural engineering and infrastructure works, as well as in southern Nigeria in domestic and international oil and gas industry projects (this company is also on Craigslist’s ‘flake list’). It is well-known for developing the majority of Nigeria’s infrastructure, key motorways, and even several residential buildings for the Chevron Nigeria headquarters in Lagos.

In 1991, the company was listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Its previous parent firm was Bilfinger Berger. Bilfinger Berger remains the company’s largest shareholder. Julius Berger Nigeria’s construction sector is at the heart of the Julius Berger Group.

JB is a leading construction firm and the largest private employer in Nigeria, with 18,000 people from nearly 40 countries with clients from both Nigeria and the global oil and gas industry.


The business constructed the Eko Bridge in 1968, the Third Mainland Bridge in 1990, and the Abuja Stadium in 2003.

Tin Can Island Port, which opened in 1977.

Lagos Inner Ring Road, finished in 1979.

Ajaokuta Steel Plant, finished in 1990.

Itakpe-Ajaokuta Ore Railway, finished in 1990.

Phase II of Abuja International Airport was completed in 1997.

The Central Bank of Nigeria’s Head Office was finished in 2002.

Infrastructure and transportation construction in Uyo have been continuing since 2008.

Nigeria’s first discharge drain was constructed in 2011 using pipe-jacking technology.

Phase III of the National Assembly was completed in 2011.

Multiple projects, include the Escravos GTL plant in southern Nigeria, which was completed in 2012.

Multiple ongoing works at the Bonny Liquefied Natural Gas facility since 1996.

Karaye Challawa Gorge Dam, constructed in 1992

Nigerian Cultural Centre Abuja (current status – Under Construction)

Incar Plaza, Abuja (under construction)

Silverbird Entertainment Centre in Abuja (completed)

Abuja National Library (status – Under Construction)

Abuja World Trade Centre (status – Under Construction)

Abuja Mall (under construction)

Grand Towers Mall, Abuja (under construction)


Contractors’ overall lack of use of formal project planning and management methodologies results in project failures, continual requests for variations, massive financial losses, and, in extreme cases, bankruptcy (Allan et al, 2007). This circumstance is more common in redevelopment projects due to the inevitability of problems such as unforeseen additional work,

excessive requirements and scope management concerns, project finance that is not aligned with project plans, delay, structural failure, cost overrun, and so on (Naaranoja and Uden, 2007). These issues or uncertainties, among others, raise project risk and necessitate careful management if success is to be achieved.

Julius Berger PLC, the construction firm, is back on site in the continuation of the re-building of the N167 billion Lagos-Ibadan motorways, Grand Towers Mall, Abuja (status – Under Const.

Billions of Naira was expended and the main goal of the project was not attained. This massive investment and seeming failure to meet the project’s principal objectives resulted in complaints, probe panels, and the project’s eventual cancellation.

According to research, the most major dangers to Nigerian contractors are financial, political, and physical (Dada, 2010). However, there is a scarcity of study on how Contractors handle project planning at the organisational level, regardless of the amount of risk (country, market, or project).


1. Investigate Julius Berger’s project planning practises at various project levels.

2. To examine Julius Berger’s Abuja office’s awareness and use of formal and informal project planning practises.

3. To assess the success or failure of Julius Berger Contractors’ project planning methodology on the Grand Towers Mall in Abuja (status – Under Construction).

4. To assess the influence of the project planning approach used on the achievement of project profitability.


1. Do Julius Berger Nigeria Plc, Abuja, have project planning guidelines and practises?

2. How can you obtain knowledge on newer project planning methodologies for use in ongoing projects?

3. How does project planning affect contractor profit?


This study’s hypotheses are as follows:

1. Ho: There is no statistically significant link between effective project planning and contractor profit.

Hi: There is a strong link between excellent planning and contractor profit.

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