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GIS was used in this work to analyse building collapses in Lagos state. The study identified and evaluated the causes of building failure, as well as the costs associated with building failure in Lagos State, Nigeria. The data collection approach used comprises the distribution of questionnaires to construction industry specialists as well as case studies for the locations.

The sites visited and the construction specialists were chosen using a purposive sampling technique. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical approaches such as frequency distribution and percentages, as well as mean response analysis.

According to the survey, the most common reasons of building failures were poor design, improper construction, over-loading, non-possession of approved plans, possession of approved drawings but non-compliance, and the use of quarks.

The total direct loss to the building owners in the two case studies considered was thirty-eight million three hundred and eight thousand, seven hundred and twenty one naira (38,385,721),

which is approximately one hundred and ninety-four thousand, eight hundred and fifty one dollars ($194,851) at the central bank of Nigeria’s exchange rate of one hundred and ninety seven naira to one US dollar as of 14th March, 2021.



1.1 Background of The Study

Buildings are buildings that serve as shelters for man, his property, and his activities. When correctly planned, constructed, and erected, they provide the client or user with the needed satisfaction.

Durability, appropriate stability to prevent failure or discomfort to users, resistance to weather, fire outbreak, and other types of accidents are some of the criteria to consider when measuring the standard of a structure (Ikpo, 2006).

Building construction styles are continually evolving due to the introduction of new materials and construction processes. As a result, the effort required in the design and construction stages of buildings is primarily focused on selecting materials,

components, and structures that will match the expected building standards and aesthetics while being cost effective. There are several universally accepted codes of practise for building design and construction.

In response to the number of occurrences of collapsed buildings reported in the country, the Federal Republic of Nigeria produced the National Building Code in 2006, which is currently being reviewed and enacted into law by the Federal Republic of Nigeria’s national assembly.

This has not had the anticipated outcomes because the majority of the country’s states have not passed the Urban and Regional Planning Law, which would have made the National Building Codes effective in their respective states.

The goal of a Building Code is to promote good practise in the design, construction, and maintenance of buildings in the interest of the health, safety, and welfare of those who use structures. The Code establishes the fundamental principles for building design and construction, serving as a code of good building practise (Obiegbu, 2006).

Building collapse is a problem that affects not only Nigeria but also other developing countries. However, Nigeria has had its fair share of building collapses in the past, with multiple structures toppling and killing dozens of people. Many lives and properties have been lost as a result of building collapses in Nigeria.

Despite the presence of building rules and professionals in the Nigerian construction industry, recorded occurrences of building collapse have grown increasingly alarming and concerning (Dimuna, 2010).

The occurrence of building failures and collapses has become a major source of concern in the development of the Nigerian nation, as the frequency of their occurrence and the magnitude of the losses in terms of lives and property are now becoming very alarming,

to the extent that it has become a familiar occurrence, even to Nigerian laypeople (Fagbenle and Oluwunmi 2010). Many people and properties have been lost as a result of building collapses, most notably in Port Harcourt, Abuja, and Lagos (Fasakin, 2002; Dimuna, 2010; Olagunju et al, 2013).

Building collapse, while a common occurrence throughout the world, is more common and devastating in underdeveloped countries. The occurrence of building failures and collapses has become a major source of concern in the growth of this country,

as the frequency of their occurrence and the scale of the losses in terms of lives and property are becoming increasingly alarming. In reality, building collapse has been a common occurrence in Nigeria, even among ordinary citizens.

Failure in a building can be defined as the inability of the building components to do what is generally anticipated or demanded of them. When, on the other hand, a section or the entire structure fails and suddenly gives way in such a way that the building cannot meet the purpose for which it was designed, the building collapses.

Building failures can occur during many stages of the construction process as well as thereafter. In Nigeria, the most common causes of building collapse have been identified as poor design, faulty construction, the use of low-quality materials, hurried construction, foundation failure,

a lack of proper supervision, ineffective enforcement of building codes by the relevant Town Planning Authorities, a lack of proper maintenance, and other factors (Folagbade, 2001; Badejo, 2009).

The country’s tendency is becoming highly concerning and a subject of concern for stakeholders. According to Ayedun, Durodola, and Akinjare (2012), the spate and frequency of occurrence have become a major source of concern not only for governments but for all well-meaning Nigerians, particularly those involved in the construction industry,

because the magnitude of the incidents is becoming unprecedented. That building collapse incidents continue to occur despite the increasing diffusion of engineering knowledge over the years has called into question whether these stakeholders have critically examined the reasons for building failure and the roles they can play or strategies they can articulate to help stop the incidents.

According to Bertram (2018), the southwest region of Nigeria has had the highest number of building collapses over the last eight years, with Lagos accounting for around 134 deaths and 159 injuries. He stated that the statistic was unrelated to the sad incident at the Synagogue Church of All Nations (SCOAN) on September 12, 2014.

The incident was the collapse of a six-story SCOAN guest house, which resulted in about 115 deaths and 131 injuries. On December 10, 2016, Nigeria was struck by tragedy as a church collapsed in Uyo, Akwa Ibom’s capital, killing over 200 people. On September 22, 2015, a building fell in Lagos State’s Lekki axis.

In May 2016, a four-story commercial building in Ogun State collapsed, killing numerous people. A three-story building fell in Lagos in October 2015. (Samod, 2017). Unfortunately, the rate of building collapse in Nigeria has increased in recent years.

Despite the absence of severely destructive natural disasters in Nigeria, the threat of building collapse has left an indelible impression on the country’s history.

Buildings’ contribution to Nigeria’s growth has not met expectations due to building failure/collapse and, more recently, poor functional performance (Windapo and Rotimi, 2012). As a result, the study examined the causes and impacts of building failure in order to determine the implications for the national economy. The study investigated the occurrence of building failures in Lagos state, Nigeria; identified and analysed the causes of building failure; and investigated the cost consequences of building failure in the studied region.

1.2 Statement of the problem

A defect or imperfection, deficit or fault in a building element or component causes a building to collapse. It could also be due to a performance omission. The extent or degree of deviation of a structure from the “as – built” state, which in most cases represents the acceptable standard within the neighbourhood, locality, state, or country, can thus be attributed to the degree of building collapse.

(Ikpo, 2018). Building collapse, on the other hand, can simply be defined as the whole or partial/progressive failure of one or more components of a building, resulting in the building’s incapacity to serve its primary function of comfort,

satisfaction, safety, and stability. Building collapses in Nigeria have been a major source of concern for all parties, including building industry professionals, government, private developers, clients and users, and neighbourhood residents.

Nigeria, particularly Lagos State, has been described as the “world’s junk-yard” with collapsed structures worth billions of Naira (Folagbade, 2011). Since independence in 1960, the financial losses caused by this situation may have exceeded N500 billion (N360 = $1).

Building collapse, as a result, gets a great deal of academic attention in nations such as Nigeria (Makinde, 2017), with the majority of studies devoted to determining the reasons of building collapse. Existing research, however, have not identified the most essential causes of building collapse in Nigeria to guide policy development.

Second, despite the prevalence of studies on building collapses in Nigeria, there have been insufficient attempts in the literature to statistically categorise these reasons in order to facilitate the adoption of preventive measures. In addition to determining the causes of building collapse, some research have identified the structures that collapsed as well as the dates of collapse (Olagunju et al., 2013).

To improve the coordination of building collapse prevention measures in Nigeria, an unsupervised grouping of the causes of building collapse will be required. Such a grouping is essential for allocating responsibilities to the various stakeholders in building production in order to implement appropriate preventive measures. Natural calamities and human irresponsibility are two major causes of structure collapse.

The researcher’s worry about the increasing number of building collapses across the country inspired this study to determine the key causes, impacts, and potential remedial methods for building collapses in Lagos state, Nigeria.

1.3 objectives of The study

The study’s major goal is to use GIS to analyse building collapses in Lagos state. The study’s particular goals are as follows:

Investigate the causes of building failure/collapse.

Determine the consequences of building collapse in Nigeria.

Investigate the factors that could aid in reducing the occurrence of structural failure and building collapse during the pre-construction and post-implementation phases of building development.

1.4 Research Questions

What variables contribute to building failure/collapse?

What are the consequences of Nigerian building collapse?

What elements might aid in reducing the occurrence of structural failure and building collapse during the pre-construction and post-implementation phases of building development?

1.5 Significance of the research

The study’s conclusions will be extremely beneficial to the general public, building clients, construction companies, industrial technical educators, and local, state, and federal governments. The findings of this study will benefit all residents of Lagos State because,

once some of these structural factors and the review of the informal sector influence as a factor have been identified and the recommendation proffer is strictly adhered to without favouritism, building failure will be reduced.

The findings of the study will benefit the public since building owners and occupants will be assured and guaranteed of the safety of lives and property in their particular structures if the buildings are built to standard standards. There will also be good shelter conditions with reduced risks, enough security,

and comfort of a well-designed and constructed building in a setting where the floor and walls of the building have great resistance to fire and moisture. Draughtsmen will recognise the value of training and retraining in order to keep up with the rapid changes in global technology. The technicians will get new abilities as a result of new discoveries and rising technology.

The study’s findings will be useful to architects, engineers, and builders in the area of load bearing since they will help them to be aware of the various forces being imposed on buildings and to work consciously with professional and certified experts rather than persons from the informal sector.

The study will allow stakeholders to consider the load-bearing capacity of each structural component during construction and will educate them on how loads affect how a building is designed, where it is located,

what materials and methods are used in its construction, and how it is maintained and used. The engineers will be able to calculate the load bearing capability of any building using modern methodologies.

The study’s findings will enable the Lagos State Government Physical Planning Authority and the Nigerian Institute of Building to determine which variables are most responsible for failure owing to the use of substandard building materials,

as well as the extent of influence of the informal sector on this scourge. The study’s findings will aid in the promotion of building construction industry norms and quality, as well as lowering the risk of building collapse in Lagos State and its environs. This advancement will aid in the efficient construction of buildings with a lower risk of failure.

1.6 Scope of the Research

The scope of this study is limited to investigating building failure and collapse in Nigeria, as well as the impact of the informal sector in Lagos State. The study focused on the Nigerian state of Lagos.

The study is limited to evaluating the elements of building failure, including as foundation failure, wall failure, floor failure, failure in columns and beams, and roof collapse in buildings, as impacted by the informal sector’s lack of professional training and ineptitude throughout Lagos State.

1.7 limitations of the Research

Financial constraint- A lack of funds tends to restrict the researcher’s efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data collection procedure (internet, questionnaire, and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will conduct this investigation alongside other academic activities. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

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