1.0: BACKGROUND STUDY
1.1.1 GUM ARABIC
Gum Arabic, the natural exudates from Acacia Senegal, a high molecular weight heteropolysaccharide (hydrolysis result D-galatose with lesser amount of 4-o-methyl-D-glucoronic acid), shows unusual solution behavior compared to other polysaccharides of similar molecular weight. The rheology of Arabic gum has been extensively studied. Gum solution 30% shows higher solution viscosity and exhibit pseudoplasticity. Some reports are available on shear thickening behavior of Arabic gums while recently Mothe and Rao reported that the gum shows shear thining behavior at low shear rate (1-50s). The instrumental measurement of low viscosity fluids like Arabic gum solutions has been a difficult task; however, with the advent of controlled stress rheometer, it is now possible to characterize the exact flow behavior of fluids with viscosities less than ImPaS. The reports on the rheology of Arabic gum are contradictory and need further investigation.
Presently, considerably attention has been given to the study of various hydrocolloids and their combinations for thickening and texture modification in gravies, dairy products, food drinks and pet foods because their rheological and functional properties are complimentary. Recent applications have proved that such blends can produce new food formulations and ingredients. Gum Arabic is compatible with most other gums due to its low viscosity characteristics. The structure of gum Arabic contains proteinaceous material (2%) covalently joined with polysaccharide moiety. It gives a smooth flow or sometimes flow or sometimes reduces high viscosity in combination with other gums like Xanthan, gelatin, agar, guar gum and modified starches to produce various confections. The gum has been beneficial when a thin, pourable consistency is desired. The synergic effects of Arabic gum have also interested the food processing industries. The resulting rheological properties of various gums depend on the gum concentration molecular weight of the polysaccharides and functional groups, and the degree of interaction between two hydrocolloids. Associations of participating hydocolloids occur if biopolymer the interaction is favorable while mixture of the repulsive hydrocolloids exhibits thermodynamics incompatibility.
Ginger (zingiber efficinale Rescoe) is a flowering plant in the family zingiberaceae whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or medicine. It is herbceous perennial which grows annual stems about a meter tall bearing narrow green leaves and yellow flowers. Ginger is indigenous to South China, and was spread eventually to the spice Islands, other parts of Asia and subsequently to West Africa and Carribean. Ginger was exported to Europe via India in the first century AD as a result of the lucrative spice trade. India is now the largest producer of ginger.
Other members of the family zingiberaceae include tumeric Cardamon, and galangal. The distantly related dicots in the Gervus Asarum are commonly called wild ginger because of their similar taste.
Mature ginger rhizomes are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from ginger roots is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and is a common ingredient of Chinese,
Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and many South Asian Cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood, meat and vegetarian dishes.
Ginger is an herb, the rhizome (underground stem) is used as a spice and also as a medicine. It can be used fresh, dried and powdered, or as a juice or oil.
Ginger is commonly used to treat various types of stomach “problems”, including motion sickness, morning sickness, Colic, upset stomach, gas diarrhea, nausea, caused by cancer treatment, nausea and vomiting after surgery as well as loss of appetite. Other uses include pain relief from arthritis or muscle soreness, menstrual pain, upper respiratory tract infections, cough, and bronchitis. Ginger sometimes used for chest pain, low back pain, stomach pain.
Some people pour the fresh juice on their skin to treat burns. The oil made from ginger is sometimes applied to the skin to relieve pain. In foods and beverages, ginger is used as a flavoring agent. In manufacturing, ginger is used as for fragrance in soaps and cosmetics. One of the chemicals in ginger is also used as an ingredient in laxative, anti-gas, and antacid medications.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
In the past, researches have been examining the possibilities of producing drilling fluids using strictly locally derived materials, this is partly successful as it is discovered that Nigeria have the necessary materials to produce Locally based drilling fluids but the major problem encountered is that the gel strength of the drilling fluids produced using local substitutes is too low and the fluid loss is too high and as a result, this is not suitable for drilling processes. Also local materials have been used in the past to produce drilling fluids but the major problem encountered is that when tested, the result is very low gel strength, high fluid loss and therefore not good enough to be used. Gum Arabic is one of the locally based materials used which is readily available in large quantity and highly soluble in water.
1.3 AIM OF STUDY
This study is aim at formulating drilling mud using locally derived materials i.e. a mixture of Gum Arabic, which is readily available in commercial quantity in the northern part of Nigeria and banana peels as a viscosifier and fluid loss additives.
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