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Chapter One: Introduction 1.1 Background
As we manage our everyday contacts in the new age, the world as we know it continues to swiftly alter as a result of the digital age’s impact across numerous sectors (educational, personal, business, social, professional, and so on).

One of the significant impacts of technology in this new millennium is the gradual rise in the educational sector, which has been fueled by the integration of Information and Communications Technology (Apena, 2012).

Thus, during this age, ICT is regarded as one of the important components of today’s advanced society, prompting many countries to adopt it (UNESCO, 2002).

People are becoming more skilled in using ICT as a tool for improving essential education, as supporters of ICT argue that, as technology develops and is used more frequently, technology knowledge will become a requirement in education, work, community, and private activities (Erumban & de Jong, 2006).

As a result, people from many cultural backgrounds would support ICT, and its use would progressively be integrated into daily activities.

Technology continues to proliferate over the world, inspiring millions of people to value and incorporate it into their daily lives. As a result of the digital revolution, the globe is becoming increasingly interconnected.

The technology we employ today has resulted in a deluge of data that grows year after year (Cukier & Mayer-Schoenberger, 2013b). The number of Google searches, particularly in the educational sector, has surged over the last two decades.

According to studies, in the near future, even more activities and operations will be directly linked to technology and Artificial Intelligence (AI), such as houses, vehicles, educational sectors, household appliances, and much more (Cukier & Mayer-Schoenberger, 2013a).

If we can use smart technology to connect our computers, phones, houses, vehicles, and workplaces, why couldn’t we use it in education? Why not incorporate technology into teaching and create a smarter education system?

To ensure long-term success in ICT’s impact on education, a thorough examination of the needs, possibilities, and difficulties confronting the educational sector is required to frame the answers and gaps that ICT will be able to fill within education in society.

ICT in education should focus on teaching critical thinking, creativity, and innovation, as well as how technology may be utilised to improve learning and interactions both within and outside of the classroom.

Robots and computer algorithms are already performing some human functions, so it is vital that ICT in education educates individuals on how to utilise digital technology responsibly and understand the benefits and drawbacks.

Integrating digital technologies into our social life, particularly in cultural settings, will benefit culture (Nistor, Lerche, Weinberger, Ceobanu, and Heymann, 2014).

This has an impact on understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity as global barriers continue to dissolve into a single world village.

As a result of such exposure and knowledge, many groups and cultures will be more willing to incorporate ICT into their daily life. To attain such enormous success, a society’s cultural setting must play an important role in ICT acceptance (Erumban & de Jong, 2006).

The adoption and use of ICT in education has been noted to engage people with varied cultural features that span geographies and national borders. However, there is a decreased likelihood of ICT integration into education in rural communities, particularly in developing nations like Nigeria.

The purpose of this study is to look into the relationship between ICT acceptability and culture in the multi-cultural villages of Jimeta-Yola, Adamawa State, in North East Nigeria.

To better understand the impact of culture on ICT adoption in education, it’s important to identify cultural barriers to using educational technology in secondary schools in Jimeta-Yola, Adamawa State.

Venkatesh (2003)’s “Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)” is used to investigate and validate elements that potentially lessen cultural barriers to ICT adoption and use in education at Jimeta-Yola Secondary Schools.


It is interesting to note that the Nigerian government, according to the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) in 2015, established that when ICT is given a high priority, it will have a significant impact on knowledge and economic growth, as has already been observed in some developed countries.

Furthermore, ICT in education gives a solid foundation for influencing the Nigerian economy and society. Human capital (labour force quality) is often regarded as a critical component of national development and economic progress.

As a result, it is critical to promote the use of technological tools in education, particularly in rural Nigeria, where acceptance of technology faces significant barriers due to cultural beliefs.

The relationship between ICT-supported education systems and socioeconomic development has been studied in the literature (Ngoma 2013).

According to studies, the introduction of technology is frequently hampered by constraints and challenges such as cultural barriers to its use, limited computer literacy, power outages, out-of-date systems, a lack of competent ICT instructors, and so on before and after acceptance (Harbour, 2004; Ngoma, 2013).

If properly implemented, ICT in education has the potential to significantly and positively impact learning and the economic environment of Jimeta-Yola in Adamawa state, Nigeria, and beyond.

This study examines the acceptance of ICT-supported educational improvement in Jimeta-Yola Secondary Schools, taking into account cultural limitations. Therefore, the research questions are as follows:

1. What are the cultural impediments to ICT adoption in Jimeta-Yola secondary schools?

2. What elements can help overcome the cultural barrier to the use of ICT tools in rural classrooms?

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The purpose of this study is to identify the cultural barriers to ICT adoption and use by testing a framework for effective ICT integration into the classrooms of Jimeta-Yola schools in Adamawa State.

The objectives are to explore how ICT tools can be implemented in secondary schools in Jimeta-Yola, Adamawa State.

To investigate the impact of culture on the acceptance and use of ICT in education by implementing a framework that would improve ICT acceptance and use in secondary school classrooms in Jimeta-Yola, Adamawa state.


The focus of this study included the population of one culture in Adamawa State: the Hausa-Fulani culture. Survey questionnaires were sent to the Yola and Jimeta target populations. The objective also includes women and males from the designated population locations.

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