DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF BIOMETRIC-BASED ATTENDANCE MANAGEMENT system
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF BIOMETRIC-BASED ATTENDANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Biometric technology is a means of identifying a person entirely on the characteristics that define that individual. This strategy is becoming increasingly popular, particularly in higher institutions, where impersonation is rampant.
The technique efficiently addresses the identifying problem by utilising attributes such as fingerprint, face, iris, and palm print. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a fingerprint identification system for Imo State University students and to track their attendance in lectures and exams.
As a result of this investigation, a system was developed and set to function properly with a biometric device. The platform was built using the Dot Net Framework.
The interactive interfaces were all written in visual basic.net, with the database running on SQL server 2008. The System Usability Scale technique was used to assess the usability efficiency of the created system in terms of usability (SUS).
The researchers had 60 students traverse the system and then respond to a questionnaire based on their experiences to assess the system's usability. The system's usability was assessed using the SUS approach, which provided an overall score of 82.7%.
As a result, the system has shown to be extremely accurate, dependable, and secure for storing student biometric data, and it prohibits unauthorised people from accessing it.
As a result, this strategy was considered to be critical for preventing student impersonation and keeping accurate student information. As a result, the system's application and scholarly value cannot be overstated.
As a result, in order to put an end to the numerous cases of impersonation in educational institutions' lectures and tests. The technique developed in this study could be used by Akwa Ibom State University, in particular, to entirely eliminate this menace.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Student identification and tracking via biometric identification systems are becoming increasingly vital in the education business in order to precisely identify and track students. Roll call and other traditional student attendance monitoring techniques have limitations and discrepancies .
Academic institutions are increasingly requiring biometric student monitoring systems because they are more precise, faster, more practical, and a more important tool for protecting students' credentials and security.
Traditional student identification and presence systems, such as roll call or paper-based attendance, have been reported to be out of current, resulting in academics and supervisors spending extra time monitoring student track.
Manual monitoring is also difficult when dealing with large classes of children. As a result, present monitoring systems contain vulnerabilities that make it hard to protect against concerns such as proxy attendance, identity card theft, impersonation, and monitoring errors, all of which have a direct influence on educational quality .
According to Manoharan et al. , biometric identification technologies allow students to check in and out quickly and efficiently.
Biometric technology uses physiological and biometric qualities (which differ for each individual) to ensure identification accuracy, reduce mistakes, and eliminate proxy attendance, as well as in the case of identical twins.
Students are secured against identity theft because to biometric technology's high encryption. According to Thomas et al [4,] biometric attendance technologies have enhanced the accuracy of capturing and monitoring student attendance.
When a biometric attendance system records a physiological characteristic such as a hand or fingerprint, an iris pattern, or even a voice recording, it acts as a record for identification verification, allowing the confirmed individual to perform the work as permitted.
Biometric attendance devices also track employees' work schedules, such as who did what and when, and so on. Biometric attendance machines are gaining popularity. Biometric attendance systems use failsafe technologies such as fingerprints to ensure attendance accuracy.
These approaches are extremely useful when working with large groups of employees or pupils. As an added bonus, it provides administrators with an easy way to keep track of both personnel and student absences.
Biometrics such as fingerprint, face, iris, and retinal pattern recognition are all types of biometrics that can be used to verify an individual's identity.
These physical data approaches are gaining popularity as a more convenient personal identification method than traditional methods such as passwords or ID cards since they utilise measurement data that is unique to the individual and remains so throughout one's lifetime .
Examination as a tool enables testing, evaluation, and accreditation. Most universities, however, require students to satisfy a certain percentage of class attendance requirements before taking an examination .
However, many institutions in developing countries have failed to achieve this criteria due to the difficulty of manually taking attendance and preserving records. According to Adetiba et al. ,
most developing-country institutions still use pen and paper to track student attendance, which has been proved to be stressful, time-consuming, unreliable, wrong, and inefficient. In the same way, students will be individually identified and verified to take a test using biometric technology.
Unauthorised examination participation is prevented by confirming the behaviour aspects with a unique character, similar to a fingerprint for each student.
Biometric systems, such as fingerprints or signatures, analyse physical and behavioural features, such as those discovered by Jaiswal et al .
According to studies, tests are the most common tool around which the educational system revolves . Most educational systems include some form of evaluation to determine how effective the system is. It is a tool used to determine who advances up the academic ladder.
In actuality, exams and professor evaluations comprise the grading system into which all students are classified on an annual or more regular basis .
The use of non-automated biometrics dates back to the dawn of human civilization, when humans began identifying one another based on physical or behavioural characteristics. Biometrics is not a novel concept. It is the earliest form of identification still in use today. According to Woodward et al. ,
biometric authentication dates back over a thousand years to East Asian potters who used their fingerprints to authenticate their goods.
According to , handwritten signatures (chops) were utilised as an early type of biometric identification in old China. Bertillon Systems first measured their subjects' length, arm length, and thumb and forefinger duration in 1882. One of the earliest institutional applications of biometric data (in this case, fingerprints) was in criminal records.
Attempts by forensic scientists and law enforcement organisations to identify and categorise offenders in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries may be considered as the origins of current biometric systems.
In the 1960s and 1970s, commercial biometric systems (typically based on hand geometry) created for use in physically accessing buildings included the (AFIS) automatic fingerprint identification system used by law enforcement organisations. Biometrics has been utilised in computers for several years.
Those that were built with a certain function in mind yet lacked the versatility to work in a variety of circumstances. As a result, many people were compelled to employ costly solutions that they could not or did not want to adopt.
Despite advancements in technology, biometric solutions were widely accepted as acceptable alternatives to security solutions such as fraud control, security breaches, and human administrative errors; biometric technology increased .
Furthermore, biometrics advancement has solved the shortcomings of previous verification methodologies. Biometrics may establish a person's identity based on who you are rather than “what you have” (such as an identity card) or “what you recall” (such as a password).
A multitude of biometric technologies are currently used to verify someone's identity. Fingerprints, hand geometry (iris and retina), face, facial thermograms, signature, palm print, and voice are examples.
Biometrics offers an edge over more traditional security measures because the data cannot be easily stolen or shared. Biometric technologies improve security and make users' life easier by reducing the need to create and remember difficult passwords .
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Most institutions now use paper, pencil, and other outmoded technologies to identify student attendance, with students writing or signing their names next to them.
This method is time-consuming and inefficient since it might be difficult to update student records, store and manage such information, and determine attendance percentages for testing purposes. Individual attendance records are not tracked over time by the system employed to detect student attendance .
Furthermore, because the fundamental data for these records is acquired in such a way that the reason for keeping student attendance records is undercut, the data from these records is frequently false, inaccurate, and not valid.
False attendance and impersonation are made incredibly easy by the current systems for collecting and storing data on student attendance.
Students find it quite simple to enter their friends' names on the attendance sheet without the teacher or any other official noticing.
In most circumstances, educators must deal with an empty classroom and an enrollment list that is overflowing. Most absentee students attend classes for a few weeks before dropping out and requesting that their regular classmates sign their absence slips for them.
Because lecturers are too busy lecturing and checking students in, they do not have enough time to look over the attendance list one by one .
The absence of an actual attendance list, as well as false attendance lists, have serious consequences. Because of the University's existing ineffectiveness un tracking students' attendance, teachers have a difficult time recognising actual lecture participants or accumulating correct statistics on student attendance for record-keeping.
Impersonations during tests are also extremely difficult to detect with these weak student attendance-taking systems. According to Stripling et al. , non-attendance has an impact on students' overall performance as well as the classroom community as a whole.
When students fail to show up for class, class failure and instructor morale suffer, and learning standards deteriorate as a result. Furthermore, as the semester progresses, class attendance declines, particularly on specific days of the week, such as Friday, as the weekend approaches.
When students forget or lose their examination cards during semester examinations, neither the students nor school administrators have physical proof that they have the required percentage of attendance to sit for the test.
A fingerprint biometric identification system, on the other hand, may easily overcome these minor challenges, preventing many students from missing tests. This has been corroborated by Olaniyi et al. .
The increased incidence of examination impersonation among students in higher education institutions is harming candidates' self-development abilities and confidence in reading and writing exams.
Despite many tactics used by stakeholders to ensure that applicants met test standards, it had a negative impact on Nigeria's educational system .
With the emphasis on certificates these days, students in Nigeria are more likely to engage in criminal acts such as skipping classes or boycotting school in order to achieve their desired outcomes.
While University officials have made concerted efforts to address issues such as a lack of effective student attendance records and student impersonation, such as by providing attendance registers for roll calls, the threat persists, with disastrous consequences for students, the University, and society as a whole.
That is why we conducted research to develop a biometric fingerprint that students can utilise. This study was conducted to assist us in doing so.
1.3Objectives Of The Study
The primary purpose of this study was to build and implement a biometric-based attendance management system. To achieve this fundamental goal, the following particular goals have been devised:
Examine the present technique of student identification at Nigeria's Akwa Ibom State University.
To develop a biometric system that can be utilised with a biometric device to instantaneously identify Akwa Ibom State University students' fingerprints,
iii. Use the method developed to acquire pupils' fingerprints.
Evaluate the performance of the created biometric system using data from both registered and unregistered students.
Determine the usability of the application built for usage with a biometric device (SUS) using the system usability scale.
1.4 Research Question
During this study, the suggested system's implementation will address the following research questions:
What is the current student identification mechanism at Akwa Ibom State University?
How can a biometric system that instantly recognises a student's fingerprint be created?
iii. How does the created system capture students' fingerprints at Akwa Ibom State University using a biometric device?
How can the performance of the created biometric system be evaluated using data from both enrolled and yet to enrol students?
How can the system usability scale (SUS) be used to calculate the usability of a produced application for usage with a biometric device?
1.5 Importance of the research
The proposed system maintains a more efficient and precise student attendance record for detecting absenteeism and impersonation. Furthermore, the system is faster and easier to use than the current paper-based student attendance record.
side from that, this technique will allow lecturers to take student attendance more effectively without having to worry about losing or damaging attendance papers as they circulate them around the class.
Furthermore, the technology will allow institution administration to track students' class attendance in a specific course with poor attendance, allowing management to remedy the problem by implementing appropriate interventions.
Because of the system's high level of security, imposters and impersonators will be unable to enter examination halls. Using fingerprint identification, the gadget will preserve previous data, making it easier for educators to retrieve.
Furthermore, the authentication technique assists institutions, lecturers, and students by removing the stress associated with waiting, which can lead to delays and, in some cases, damage to the attendance sheet.
It also avoids the inaccuracies and inconsistencies associated with manual signing in, such as students attending a class being marked absent, resulting in the loss of the mark granted to that attendance due to multiple attendance sheets.
Fingerprint Based Student Attendance Monitoring System is incredibly beneficial in educational institutions, especially during classes and exams, when heavy security is often utilised to validate students' identities and detect imposters.
The use of the Verification System will drastically reduce the number of security employees. Furthermore, the proposed solution addresses the issue of missing examination attendance registers because information on students can be created on the spot utilising the offered technology.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Akwa Ibom State University, a state-owned higher education institution, was created in Uyo, Nigeria's Akwa Ibom state capital. There are numerous biometric techniques available. The fingerprints will be the focus of this study.
Using student biodata from Nigeria's School of Technology at Akwa Ibom State University, a biometric fingerprint identification system was created. The study will take place from August 2018 until September 2019.
1.7 Thesis Structure
The following are the chapters of this thesis:
CHAPTER 1 of this thesis discusses in depth the issue description, study questions, particular targets, and others.
CHAPTER 2: A review of relevant literature and a few instances are included in this section.
CHAPTER 3: This chapter demonstrates the design and implementation of the recommended method procedures.
In CHAPTER 4, it depicts the results, examines them, and provides an assessment technique.
The summary findings and recommendations are revealed in CHAPTER.