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Traffic control at road junctions, which was formerly done solely by human labour, has become ineffective as the number of motorists and the complexity of road networks have increased.

Vehicular traffic is on the rise around the world, especially in metropolitan cities.As a result, optimisation of traffic signal management systems becomes necessary.

In this study, I looked at the construction of traffic signal controllers utilising fuzzy logic algorithms, particularly on two-way traffic highways.

Experimental results show that an automated traffic signal control system outperforms a traffic control system that uses traffic wardens to control traffic.

Chapter one


For road and highway networks, safe and efficient traffic flow via intersections is critical. To prevent accidents or collisions, traffic lights and traffic signals direct traffic at road intersections.

In some traffic signal control systems, the duration of green and red lights varies according to the time of day and traffic circumstances, as does the time pedestrians can cross roadways in front of stopped traffic.

To meet all of the requirements of a real-time interconnected system, the “Traffic Light Control System” is the ideal embedded platform due to its robust design, compact design factor, reliable high performance components, and a plethora of interfaces for connecting to communications equipment and redundant communications equipment.


1.1 Background of the Study

The high proportion of road accidents caused by unrestricted driving at crossroads is distressing. This has made the mere thought of travelling dangerous for both the general people and commercial drivers.

Making it necessary to include wait times at traffic junctions in passenger transport fairs, including the risk to human life and property.

Vehicular travel is increasing over the world, particularly in large cities, to better accommodate rising demand and limit impatience among road users, which invariably results in disorderliness, mishap, damage, and accident. Preventing such incidents and disorderliness should be a government’s top focus.

In an attempt to offer traffic control on our roads, the government has established institutions and organisations such as the National Road Safety Commission, Traffic Wardens, and even the police to help regulate traffic flow.

Traffic wardens have the authority to request that a vehicle stop, not halt, or travel in a specific direction. They may also issue non-endorsable fixed penalty notices to cars for violating specific packing regulations, such as impeding vehicle passage, pausing on the wrong route, or exceeding the time limit in a packing discussion.

Despite the government’s efforts to implement traffic control systems, disorderly driving persists. The rise in population and cars, as well as a lack of contemporary technology, are contributing factors to the failure of Nigeria’s traffic road control system

making it difficult to accomplish the goals that were established. Controlling traffic congestion, vehicle queuing, roadblocks, and accident waves are only a few examples among many.

As a result, there is a need to encourage the use of an automated traffic management system to execute traffic control functions throughout the country.

Traffic light control systems are typically organised into lanes of travel for a specific direction, with interchanging traffic signals or signals at junctions to promote the orderly and timely flow of traffic.

Traffic is divided into three categories: vehicle, non-vehicular (bicycling), and pedestrian. Dame class vehicles share speed limits and easements with one another.

Cooperative signalling arrangements can also be developed with representatives from other types of traffic. Organised traffic often reduces travel time, as vehicles wait at some intersections with control systems.


The issue of traffic congestion has had a significant impact on the country’s transport system. This presents numerous issues, particularly when there are emergency situations at traffic light crossings, which are always congested with automobiles.

A traffic light controller system is meant to address these issues. Traffic control sets a system of rules and instructions that drivers, pilots, train engineers, and ship captains use to avoid accidents and other hazards.

Motorists rely on traffic control technologies to avoid collisions and arrive safely to their destinations. Signs, signal lights, pavement markings, and a number of other devices placed on, above, around, or beneath the roadway are examples of traffic control devices for highway movement.



The goal of this project is to create a traffic control system utilising a fuzzy logic algorithm that provides for the best utilisation of the traffic management system by employing a customisable traffic control system that will stand the test of time.

This system will be a powerful and adaptable instrument that can provide this service at any moment within the restrictions of the technologies being used.

Significance of the Study

This study’s research aims to optimise traffic congestion at intersections. The government’s goal in establishing traffic control organisations is to control traffic congestion, allow for the timely and free flow of traffic, and reduce accidents.

If this traffic control system is established, the government will be able to achieve its goals even without human assistance. The study is also expected to serve as a guideline for students and teachers who seek a more efficient, quality, and attribute-based traffic flow on our highway.

Furthermore, it will bring to the attention of its readers scientific proof of formally unverified facts about the development of intelligent traffic systems.



This research is primarily concerned with the optimisation of traffic congestion; however, the ideas proposed could be expanded to optimise traffic at four-way, eight-way, and multiple road intersections.


Limitations of the Study

This traffic control system employs light-emitting diodes (LED). LED base lights are made up of arrays of LED elements organised in a variety of patterns; from a distance, the arrays appear to be a continuous light source till closely studied.

People with colour blindness may find it much more perilous, as this could lead to an accident. Cars in this traffic signal system may also encounter wait times at crossroads, but these wait times are shorter than with manual traffic management.

Furthermore, because the timer is set for a fixed duration and the system is probabilistic, this traffic control does not allow for adjustment to coincide with peak hours. Passes from one phase to the next, regardless of traffic density.

Definition of Terms

Fuzzy logic is a type of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables can be any real integer between 0 and one.

Vehicle travel: Travel by vehicle

Traffic control: Regulation of movement.

Congested Traffic: Heavy Travel

Flowing: The movement of vehicles and things.

Wait time: The amount of time a vehicle is allowed to wait before passing.

Two-way traffic means a two-way lane.

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