Project Materials




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Chapter one

Every day, millions of weather-related economic decisions are made in several industries, including transportation, agriculture, power, and construction. Weather conditions have a wide-ranging impact on the economy, both directly and indirectly. Better weather forests create economic opportunities in nearly every sector.


Weather forecasts are crucial for the commercial and private transportation sectors, including the airline, shipping, and trucking industries, both domestically and globally. Airlines, for example, use short-term forecasts to better position their planes and change flight routes.


Background of the study

Weather forecasting originated with early civilizations using recurring astronomical and metrological occurrences to assist them track seasonal variations in the weather (MISTIC House, 2008).

Around 650 BC, the Babylonians attempted to forecast short-term weather changes using the appearance of clouds and optical phenomena such as haloes.

By 300 B.C., Chinese astronomers had created a calendar that divided the year into 24 festivals, each representing a distinct sort of weather.

Around 340 B.C., the Greek philosopher Aristotle composed Metrological, a philosophical book that featured speculations about the genesis of rain, clouds, hail, wind, thunder, lightning, and hurricanes.

In addition, astronomy, geography, and chemistry were discussed. Aristotle made some incredibly accurate weather measurements, as well as some substantial blunders. For nearly 200 years, many people believed his four-volume treatise to be the authoritative source on weather theory.

Although many of Aristotle’s claims were incorrect, it wasn’t until the 17th century that many of his concepts were challenged. Throughout history, attempts have been attempted to create forecasts based on weather mythology and personal observations.

However, by the end of the Renaissance, it had become increasingly clear that the natural philosophers’ ideas were inadequate and that more knowledge of the was required to advance our understanding of the atmosphere (Wilson, 2007. These equipment were used to measure the qualities.

Moisture, temperature, and pressure are examples of atmospheric conditions. Nicholas Cusa (C.1401 – 1464, German) presented the first known design in western culture for a hygrometer, an instrument used to measure atmospheric humidity, in the mid-fifteenth century.

Galileo Galilsi (1564-1642, Italian) invented an early thermometer in 1592 or shortly thereafter, while Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647, Italian) invented the barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure in 1643.

While these meteorological instruments were being refined from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, other related observational theoretical and technological developments added to our understanding of the atmosphere, and individuals in various locations began to make and record atmospheric measurements.

The advent of the telegraph and the establishment of telegraph networks in the mid-nineteenth century enabled the regular transmission of meteorological observations to and from observers and compilers.

These data were used to create primitive weather maps, identify surface wind patterns, and study storm systems. Weather monitoring stations began to proliferate all over the world

eventually giving rise to synoptic weather forecasting, which is based on the compilation and analysis of many observations gathered concurrently over a large area, in the 1860s.

The creation of regional and global metrological observation networks in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries made more data available for observation-based weather forecasting.

The radiosonde, invented in the 1920s, provided a significant contribution to weather monitoring at high altitudes. Radiosondes, which are small lightweight boxes fitted with meteorological equipment and a radio transmitter, are propelled high into the atmosphere by a hydrogen or helium-filled balloon that ascends to an altitude of about 30 km before bursting (Gaffen, 2008).

During the ascent, these equipment provide temperature, moisture, and pressure data (called soundings) back to the ground station. Three, the data is analysed and made available for the creation of weather maps or integration into computer models for weather prediction. Nowadays, radiosondes are launched every twelve (12) hours from hundreds of ground stations throughout the world.


The research aims are as follows:

To assist aviation meteorologists in providing accurate weather forecasts.

To allow aviation meteorologists to offer weather forecasts with little delay.

iii. To enable the aviation sector to make decisions about flight control based on the information provided.

To learn and apply advanced programming languages as a rational tool for predicting meteorological conditions.

To ensure effective analysis, design implementation, and the provision of solutions to current difficulties in aviation weather forecasting.


Statement of the Problem

The current approach of weather forecasting in the aviation sector is hampered by the following issues.

Inaccurate weather predictions

Delay in weather forecasting from the headquarters (meteorological services headquarters in Lagos).

iii. The use of manual methods in weather forecasting, as well as maintaining or keeping records of prior measurements of weather variables and their analysis.



The goal of this project will be to create a functional, easy-to-use, and dependable software package for forecasting meteorological conditions in the aviation business (Sam Mbakwe Airport).

The scope of this project design includes the comprehensive automation of the following:

The data entry section makes it easy to enter data collected from various instrument readings.

The data base: the data input is saved in a database for record purposes as well as for quick sorting of a particular record(s).

iii. The weather analysis: This studies a specified record of daily weather observations and displays the data’s statistics.

The weather forecast: The impact of the weather and its observations are stated.

Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is to build a weather forecasting package for the aviation industry that would provide information on the weather conditions on a daily basis, and this information would be important for

Aeroplane landing
During aircraft takeoff, make decisions on route adjustments and difficulties.

Discomfort caused by altitude variations during flight.

Limitations of the Study

One of the researcher’s limitations was the difficulty in gathering information and important details regarding the current system from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) officials at Imo Airport.

Another barrier encountered by the researcher is financial limits, particularly in terms of transportation costs to the area of study for data collection, as well as the cost of obtaining information from relevant journals, books, and printed materials from the internet, among other things.

Finally, there is a paucity of relevant textbooks connected to the topic that can be used for citations.


Definition of Terms

Beaufort scale: A scale that determines the wind seed by measuring the influence of wind on familiar objects.

DRIZZLE: A type of precipitation composed of water droplets smaller than 5mm.

FOG: water that has condensed near to ground level, resulting in a cloud of extremely minute droplets that decreases visibility to less than one kilometre.

HAIL: precipitation in the form of ice balls formed by liquid precipitation, which freeze and become coated with layers of ice as they are lifted and cooled in powerful updrafts of thunder storms.

HAZE: Fine dry or wet dust particles suspended in low visibility. It is distinguishable from log by its blue or yellowish linge.

LIGHTING: Any and all types of visual electrical discharge caused by thunderstorms.

Meteorology is the study of atmospheric events and processes, as well as their relationships with processes on the earth’s surface.

MISI: very thin water droplets at ground level that appear in air with a halo.

OVERCAST: When more than nine-tenths of the sky is cloudy.

A radiosonde is a balloon that carries instruments to measure conditions in the upper atmosphere.

Rain is a type of precipitation that consists of water droplets larger than 0.5mm.

SHOWER: A sort of precipitation with intermittent or abrupt fluctuations in intensity that happens when the atmosphere is unstable.

SLEET: A mix of rain and snow that falls while temperatures are near freezing.

SNOW: Precipitation made up of white or translucent ice crystals. Snow originates in cold clouds through the direct transition of water vapour to ice. TAUNDERSTORM (or Thundershower) A local thunderstorm caused by a cumulonimbus cloud, accompanied by thunder and lightning.

Turbulence is the violent vertical motion of air that can cause a plane to move up and down.

WEATHER: The state of the atmosphere in terms of temperature, moisture, and cloudiness. Weather is also a meteorological term that refers to the current variations in the atmosphere and their effects on life and human activity. It consists of temperature, pressure, humidity, clouds, wind, precipitation, and fog.

WIND SHEAR: A change in wind direction; vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed with height.

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