CORRUPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES
CORRUPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES
Corruption is a major contributor to the Third World's underdevelopment. Nigeria, being a third-world country, is not immune to corruption. In order to demonstrate that they are not indifferent to the prevalence of corruption, the federal and state governments have established several institutional mechanisms for combating corrupt and felonious behaviour.
Despite the fact that these mechanisms exist, corrupt behaviours are increasing by the day. The prevalence of corruption has been identified as the primary reason for the poor execution of poverty reduction measures.
Using Akwa Ibom State as an example, this paper aims to explain how corruption affects the execution of poverty alleviation initiatives in the state. To do this, we will conduct an investigation to identify corruption infiltrations throughout implementation.
We also plan to study if the anti-corruption institutions are effective, as well as what may be the cause of their inefficient performance. With a solid theoretical foundation, the study will explain why some people are corrupt when given public cash.
1.1 Background of The Study
Nigeria has struggled with corruption and poverty since her independence in 1960 and later establishment as a republic in 1963. Several policies and programmes have also been developed to address these two problems, which are not only accused of producing backwardness, but also serve as hurdles to growth to a greater level.
Despite its abundant natural riches, Nigeria is widely recognised as one of the poorest countries in the developing or Third World. Nigeria has consistently been ranked as one of the poorest countries in the world by the United Nations Development Programme.
Despite the variety of poverty reduction efforts begun and implemented by the previous government, a World Bank Report stated that Nigeria's Human Development Index (HDI) was just 0.416 and that almost 70% of the population was living below the bread line.
Since independence, numerous administrations of the Nigerian government have responded to this predicament. For example, former administrations' programmes and programmes to reduce poverty include:
Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Better Life for Rural Dwellers (BLD), Family Support Programme (FSP), Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), Agricultural Development Project (ADP), Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development Commission (OMPADEO), Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF), and others.
Scholars have observed and shown that corruption is the greatest impediment to the implementation of these policies and activities. Despite the government's efforts to reduce poverty, this malaise appears to be halting progress in all of its ramifications.
President Olusegun Obasanjo took on the significant task of addressing the twin crises of poverty and corruption when he assumed office in May 1999. To address these challenges,
President Obasanjo set aside N10 billion for the development of a poverty alleviation initiative, and on September 29, 2000, he established the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) to combat corruption. 2005 (Eminue).
Akwa Ibom State, a Nigerian substate, is not immune to the maladies of poverty and corruption. As a result, both the state and federal governments have supplied the state with the institutional structures needed to eradicate poverty. Some of these constructions are as follows:
Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC), National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), Family Support Programme (FSP), and others.
It has been discovered that, like with previous Poverty Alleviation projects, the merciless hands of corruption have touched these projects, becoming the principal limitation, accused of causing the poor running of these praiseworthy programmes.
This research study tries to understand how corruption impacts the implementation of poverty alleviation initiatives in order to prevent these programmes from utter destruction. It also tries to identify the sources of corruption during implementation and to provide suitable steps to eliminate it.
1.2 statement of the Problem
Corruption has been identified as the primary impediment to the implementation of poverty reduction projects in Akwa Ibom State. Corruption has prevented the poor from benefiting from and achieving the goals and objectives of these projects.
Despite the presence of these services, the poor continue to suffer. This is the issue that is impeding the achievement of the State's poverty reduction targets.
To bring this issue to light, the following questions are posed:
What factors contribute to implementation corruption?
How does corruption effect poverty alleviation scheme implementation?
What are the consequences of corruption on the poor?
Is corruption affecting the implementers?
Are anti-corruption structures working?
Answers to these questions will be extremely useful in dealing with corruption.
1.3 Objectives of The Study
When the problem statement is examined, the goal of this study can be summarised as follows:
To explore how corruption impacts the state's execution of poverty alleviation measures.
To uncover corruption in the implementation process.
To identify the true perpetrators of corrupt actions.
To specify who the government should select as implementors and recipients.
To assess if the methods and institutions in place to combat corruption are effective.
1.4 Significance of the Research
The findings of this study will significantly contribute to the development of a more rigorous implementational approach to poverty alleviation programmes while also energising anti-corruption bodies in their fight against corruption.
It will also help implementors, beneficiaries, and the government. It intends to inform the government about whether the measures for combating corruption are effective or ineffective.
Finally, this study will serve as a literature review for future scholars who may choose to update or do additional research on the subject.
Scope of The Study
This research project will focus on Akwa Ibom State's landmass, with some key references to Nigerian states in general.
A theory explains why something exists or occurs. As a result, it is vital to ask: can these problems and corruption-prone conditions not be changed? Is it possible for the typical implementor to become less crooked and more patriotic?
What are the options for dealing with this age-old crime against humanity? An attempt to address these concerns would take us to the prescriptions of Abraham Maslow's “Hierarchy of Needs” human relation theory.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory and Corruption
Maslow was a psychologist who refined Elton Mayo's basic results when he introduced his renowned “needs hierarchy” in a 1943 essay titled “A Theory of Human Motivation” and his 1954 book titled “Motivation and Personality.” Maslow claims that humans have five sets of goals or needs. He placed them in a hierarchy of need strength, as seen below:
Figure 1: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
According to Maslow (1970), once the lower needs are met, they no longer serve as motivators for human behaviour. The higher needs, according to Lemay (2001), “will not serve as motivators until the lower needs are met.” (p.121).
Thus, a person will put himself in danger to obtain food, housing, and clothing, after which his attention will shift to higher demands. As a result, the average Nigerian implementor abandons patriotism and rule-following in order to meet his or her physiological requirements and engages in corrupt actions.
They do this regardless of the risk associated in order to meet their family's food, shelter, and clothing needs, which the current income scale cannot meet to a considerable extent.
According to Maslow, “while it is true that man lives by bread alone,” it is only when there is no bread that higher wants emerge – and these needs, rather than simply psychological hunger, rule the human organism. Higher needs emerge as they are addressed, and so on to the top of the hierarchy (Lemay 2001).
In the case of the average Nigerian implementor, with his current compensation structure, he can hardly get enough “bread” for himself and family, let alone the greater needs. It is very likely that if these lower demands are met effectively, the implementor will have no motivation to participate in corrupt actions.
The following hypotheses were proposed to guide the research.
Corruption is most likely to blame for the poor execution of poverty reduction projects.
Poor implementation is caused by a poor pay structure for implementors, which leads to corrupt practices.
Ineffective anti-corruption policies and structures exacerbate poor implementation.
Our research methodology focuses on the procedures employed in the study as well as the numerous approaches used to collect and assess data. It focuses on the study's demographic and sample, research design, data gathering, and data analysis procedures.
The population of this study consists of the workers of the Akwa Ibom State Life enhancement Agency, which is located on Babangida Avenue in Uyo. The sample comprised of forty randomly selected Life Enhancement Agency employees.
Design of the Study: The study's main goal was to discover how corruption affects the implementation of poverty alleviation programmes in Akwa Ibom State. The questionnaire was used to collect data for the investigation.
It was built by the researcher with the help of the supervisor. It was filled with directions and queries. Section A needed respondents' personal information, but Section B asked questions about the investigation's issue.
Each item on the instrument was marked “YES” or “NO” by the respondent. After each item, a space was provided for any reaction other than “Yes” or “No.” After multiple corrections by the supervisor, the questionnaire was validated.
It had all of the information required for the research. Data gathered from a secondary source, namely records from the Life Enhancement Agency, were equally valid due to the fact that they were secret papers.
Data Gathering: The data for this study were acquired by the researcher through: . Questionnaire is a primary source.
Records in the Life Enhancement Agency, Uyo, are a secondary source.
The researcher administered the questionnaire in person to the individual chosen at random for the study. Following the activity, the completed forms were promptly collected from each respondent.
Data Analysis Procedure: The data acquired for the study were analysed using the chi square instrument.
1.9 Glossary of Terms
Corruption: In this study, corruption is defined as outright embezzlement of public funds entrusted to one's care and the acceptance of bribes to satisfy one's selfish desires.
Implementation is the act of carrying out or carrying out the objectives and goals of a policy or initiative.