CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND REMEDIES OF poverty AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA
1.1 Background of the Research
The subject of unemployment has received extensive coverage both domestically and abroad. It is the most persistent and intractable issue confronting both industrialized and emerging nations. The reality is that no country in the world has a hundred percent employment rate. All nations face at least a small proportion, if not a high rate, of unemployment, and the primary macroeconomic objective of most, if not all, nations is to tackle unemployment issues in their own economies.
Unemployment has been identified as one of the most significant obstacles to social wellbeing. In addition to being a gigantic waste of a nation's human resources, it creates welfare loss in the form of lower productivity, contributing to lower income and well-being. As a result of the necessity to prevent the negative effects of unemployment, many developing nations have made addressing the unemployment problem a top priority in their development objectives. National Directorate of Employment (NDE) was established on March 26, 1986, as one of the measures adopted by the Nigerian government to address the nation's unemployment crisis.
Unemployment has been described as the lack of employment among able-bodied individuals. It is a phrase used to describe the proportion of the labor force that is not employed.
Unemployment is not an altogether novel notion in Nigeria. Former labor minister Patrick Koshoni (2005) states, “The problem of mass unemployment is not new; it has been with us in varying degrees for decades.” The escalating population boom of the past few years has brought the issue to a point where it cannot be ignored without terrible results.
The number of unemployed individuals continues to increase daily. Still unemployed are thousands of Nigerian graduates who have completed the mandatory National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) program. There are also unemployed individuals who lack a tertiary education but possess some basic qualifications and abilities. This issue requires prompt response from all levels of government. This is due to the fact that unemployment hinders human growth and creates poverty, which can lead to poor consumption and income levels. The unfavorable results of a high unemployment rate are unrelenting societal upheavals in the shape of a rising crime rate and insecurity throughout the country, and particularly in Maiduguri. This study's objective is to determine the causes, prevalence, and repercussions of unemployment in the Maiduguri metropolitan council, as well as the possibility of a remedy.
1.2 Description of the Research Issue
Nigeria's unemployment rate has reached a critical level and labor absorption has become troublesome. The issue is now widely regarded as one of the most significant socioeconomic issues plaguing the Nigerian economy. In contrast to other African nations, Nigeria has the biggest young unemployment rate, according to statistics. It is estimated that there are currently over 22 million unemployed youngsters in Nigeria (Bakare,2012).
The majority of the “open” unemployment observed in Nigeria is due to structural factors such as the nature of the educational system and its interface with the labor market (i.e., the mismatch problem), technological change, permanent shifts in the demand for goods and services, and the skill content of the labor force, according to numerous studies on the topic of unemployment in Nigeria. The underlying high unemployment rate is also determined by cyclical variables, such as fluctuations in aggregate local and foreign demand for products and services, and institutional factors, such as the presence of powerful labor unions and labour regulations.
In addition to open unemployment, there is evidence of a significant incidence of “hidden” unemployment in the form of discouraged people who would prefer to work but are neither employed nor actively seeking job. The high rates of ‘open' and ‘hidden' unemployment in Nigeria reflect a significant waste of human resources, the cause of poverty traps, a high level of economic disparity, and a sluggish increase in gross domestic product, and as a result, they pose a challenge that deserves close consideration.
1.3 Aims of the Research
As a social problem, unemployment must be curbed by the state's apparatus. On this note, the National Directorate of Employment was founded as the nation's primary statutory agency charged with combating unemployment.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to:
Analyze the reasons of unemployment in Nigeria.
Determine the unemployment rate in Maiduguri.
Evaluate the repercussions of unemployment in Maiduguri.
examine the relationship between unemployment and antisocial behavior among Nigerian graduates.
1.4 Research Concerns
What causes unemployment in the metropolitan council of Maiduguri?
What is the unemployment rate in the Maiduguri metropolitan area?
What effects does unemployment have on the metropolitan council of Maiduguri?
What is the relationship between graduate unemployment and antisocial behavior in the Maiduguri metropolitan council?
1.5. Importance of the Research
This study will be significant if it is able to identify the causes and effects of the phenomenon under investigation and propose potential solutions for addressing them.
Since the effects of unemployment are always negative in any culture that experiences it, it is necessary to study it in order to raise proper knowledge about it.
This study will provide information that will aid in educating the public about the dangers associated with unemployment, not only for the individual confronting unemployment but also for others and for society as a whole.
It is an attempt to shed attention on the difficulties youths experience, particularly after graduating from secondary and postsecondary universities.
To provide more opportunities for researchers who may or choose to conduct more intensive research on the subject of unemployment in order to increase their understanding of it.
The findings of the study/research will be of major importance to the government in implementing policies and programs that will assist lower the threat of unemployment to a manageable level, if not eradicate it entirely.
1.6 Definition of Operational Key Terms/Concepts
This part will focus on the conceptualization and operationalization of some of the main concepts to be utilized in this work to the extent that any ambiguity is removed and the terms are suitable for this investigation.
It simply implies separating a person from his job and the output of his labor.
Gross National Product
It assesses the values of a country's economic activities. It is also described as the total market value or price of all final goods and services produced in an economy over a given time period, often one year.
Perceived or actual threat to an individual's whole, physical, mental, or social health… (WHO).
This is defined as all individuals between the ages of 15 and 70, excluding students, housekeepers, and those who are unable or unwilling to work.
Infractions or antisocial conduct that are less severe than other criminal offences. This type of conduct is typically linked with adolescents and young adults.
Individuals who are active in the development of government programs to address social issues.
CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND REMEDIES OF POVERTY AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA