TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0.Introduction 11 2.1. UnemploymentinNigeria(GenesisandTrends)13 Psycho-Social effects of Unemployment 16Causes of Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria 202.4.TypologyofUnemployment25 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.2.1 Functionalist Theory 26
2.2.2 Conflict Theory 27
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
RESULT AND INTERPRETATION
4.4. Test of Hypothesis 50
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATIONS
Background of the Study
Unemployment, that’s a word many Nigerian graduates have become accustomed to in this present generation. It is one of the greatest challenges Nigeria is faced with, which has maintained a rising trend over the years. Unemployment arises as a result of insufficient and non-availability of jobs to correspond with the growing population, even those who are employed sometimes live with the fear of being unemployed due to job insecurity and retrenchment of workers. There is employment of factors of production if they are engaged in production. The term unemployment could be used in relation to any of the factors of production which is idle and not being utilized properly for production. However, with reference to labour, there is unemployment if it is not possible to find jobs for all those who are eligible and able to work. Labour is said to be underemployed if it is working below capacity or not fully utilized in production (Anyawuocha, 1993). Unemployment can either be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary in the sense that one chooses not to work because he or she has means of support other than employment. Example is an idle rich man. On the other hand, involuntary unemployment exists when persons who are eligible and willing to work at the prevailing rate of pay are unable to find work, (Anyanwa 1995).
The total labour force in Nigeria is made up of all persons aged 15-64 years excluding students, home keepers, retired persons and stay-at-home to work or not interested. Official figures from the Bureau of Statistics puts the figure of unemployed at 19.70 per cent, about 30 million, but this figure still did not include about 40 million other Nigerian youths captured in World Bank statistics in 2009. By implication, it means that if Nigeria’s population is 140 million, then 50 percent of Nigerians are unemployed. Viewing this from the perceptive of the recent events in the Middle East where unemployment and poverty among others played a key role in the uprising, one can only conclude that Nigeria’s unemployment poses a threat to its socio-economic development, security and peaceful co- existence, being that Nigeria is made up of diverse entities from different cultural and religious backgrounds most of whom have shown differences in political, cultural and religious understanding and accommodation emanating from concerns of abuse of power,
resource allocation, nepotism, negligence and corruption among others. According to the Central Bank of Nigeria (2004), unemployment rose to 30% during 2004 statistics on employment rate. Unemployment has been seen as a world-wide economic problem and has been categorized as one of the serious impediments to social progress.
Apart from representing a huge waste of a country’s manpower resources, it generates welfare loss in terms of lower output thereby leading to lower income and well-being of the people (Akinboyo, 1987, and Raheem 1993).
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