BUSINESS EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS' PERCEPTION OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES FOR THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RIVERS STATE UNIVERSITY
This study examined the perceptions of Business Education undergraduate students at Rivers State University regarding community resources for the teaching and learning of entrepreneurship. The study population consists of 200 Rivers state university students.
The researcher utilized questionnaires as the data collection instrument. Descriptive Utilizing a survey research design, this study was conducted. A total of 133 respondents representing seniors, fourth-graders, third-graders, and second-graders participated in the study. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using straightforward percentages and frequencies.
1.1Context of the study
Teaching and learning Entrepreneurship Education in postsecondary institutions is of the utmost importance to all parties involved. The National Policy on Education identifies Education as the “premier” instrument for national development (FRN, 2004). It is believed that education can bring about the desired socioeconomic and political changes in a nation.
The recent call for the inclusion of Entrepreneurship Education in tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria is an indication of its importance to employment creation; as Nigeria continues to produce graduates from our various institutions who are hardly self-reliant and solely reliant on white collar jobs for sustenance due to their lack of adequate skills that will allow them to function effectively and efficiently towards the development of the economy.
Immediately following World War II, the need to recognize entrepreneurship education in the West began to gain prominence. After World War II, which lasted six (6) years (1939-1945), the majority of economic structures collapsed, making it impossible for the government to absorb all graduates of the educational system. Though the circumstances during those eras were not the same as those in developing nations such as Nigeria.
The discovery of crude oil at Oloibiri in the 1950s led to an oil boom in the country, and there were sufficient funds in the government treasury to employ all graduates of the educational system at all levels. Nigerians' attention was redirected as a result of the collapse of the oil boom, which led to economic recession and its attendant problems, including unemployment, poverty, and social vices such as kidnapping, youth unrest, and the Boko Haram insurgency.
Federal Government introduced entrepreneurship education in 2006 to combat unemployment, poverty, and unrest in the country in response to the country's rising unemployment rate (Ediagbonya, 2013; Imeokparia & Ediagbonya, 2013).
The Federal Government made the programme mandatory for all students in higher education institutions, regardless of their area of specialization, and in the majority of tertiary institutions, students are required to take entrepreneurship education as a general studies requirement.
The overarching objective is to continuously promote an entrepreneurial culture and mindset among students and faculty with the aim of educating and assisting graduates of the system in establishing and maintaining sustainable business ventures (Urbano, Aponte & Toledano, 2008).
The Minister of education emphasized that the National Universities Commission (NUC) had been given presidential directives by the Ministry of Education to supervise and coordinate the programme of introducing entrepreneurship education in Nigerian institutions of higher learning in collaboration with all regulatory bodies of higher institutions – the National Board of Technical Education (NBTE), National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) – to be handled by the committee.
Nigeria as a nation has worked tirelessly since the collapse of the oil boom to achieve youth independence, poverty eradication, and an improved economic status through numerous reforms and program initiatives such as Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), the National Poverty Eradication Program (NAPEP), the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), and the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), among others.
Unfortunately, these program initiatives aimed at capacity building and utilization do not appear to have helped in any way to equip young school leavers (Youths) with the necessary skills that will empower them after they graduate (Okolocha & Okolocha, 2012).
Despite robust economic growth, the Nigerian youth unemployment rate for 2006-2008 was estimated to be 54.9 percent. Youth unemployment has continued to rise to the present day. By strengthening their small-scale industries, countries such as Japan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, China, India, and Korea have joined the community of industrialized nations. Nigeria, for its part, aims to join the ranks of industrialized nations by 2020.
In an effort to bridge the gap between youth unemployment and job creation, the Federal Ministry of Education has made entrepreneurship education one of the mandatory general studies for students in tertiary institutions across the country. The goal is to instill in the youths the spirit of self-reliance, which has become crucial for national economic growth and development.
The essence of entrepreneurship education is to instill the spirit and culture of entrepreneurship in students (Akpomi, 2009; Adejimola & Olufunmilayo, 2009). Education in entrepreneurship emphasizes education for self-employment over education for paid employment.
This type of education has become crucial in Nigeria due to the country's high unemployment rate and the social vices and unrest that accompany it. It is believed that this type of education can meaningfully engage students and make them more productive and useful to themselves and the nation as a whole.
The growth and development of the economy depends heavily on the skills that our educational institutions equip their graduates with. According to Ihebereme (2010), skill acquisition is the process of acquiring or gaining effective and ready knowledge for the development of one's aptitude and skill in a specific field.
One of the policies implemented in Nigeria to combat poverty, youth unrest, sophisticated crime and corruption, rural-to-urban migration, unemployment, and other social ills is skill acquisition (Ihebereme, 2010).
The purpose of skill acquisition at the tertiary level of education in Nigeria is to equip students with more practical and less theoretical income-generating skills. Mbionwu (2008) noted that when youths receive adequate training in skills, they are able to become self-employed after completing their education; consequently, they become active contributors to both community and national development.
The possession of skills is crucial for preventing adolescents from becoming social outcasts. According to Ihebereme (2008), skill acquisition (Entrepreneurship) education in the Nigerian educational system functions as a rehabilitator, re-orienter, motivator, and enabler for the underprivileged (students of poor parents). These skills are described as entrepreneurial skills (Akudolu, 2010).
Okolocha and Okolocha (2012) defined entrepreneurship skills as business skills that one acquires in order to function effectively in a turbulent business environment as an independent or self-employed individual in order to improve one's economic status and the society as a whole. According to the findings of Okebukola's (2006) study, the majority of Nigerian graduates lack self-reliance and entrepreneurial skills.
In a similar vein, Anyakoha (1997), cited by Olumese and Clark (2011), emphasized that training for the development of entrepreneurial skills in Nigerian universities is not currently well articulated. The significance of entrepreneurial skills cannot be overstated, as acquiring the proper skills through entrepreneurship enables young school dropouts to become economically independent and self-sufficient.
Entrepreneurship has been identified globally and nationally as a tool for generating a sustainable economy, which is the central value of the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategies, according to Isike (2008). (NEEDS). Uloko and Ejinkonye (2010) noted that when youths are empowered through the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills, there is a chance that they will use those skills to create new wealth-generating opportunities.
Youth entrepreneurship empowerment requires the proper acquisition of skills through education and training. According to the findings of a study conducted by Egwanyenga and Ranor (2012), entrepreneurial skills include managerial skills, accounting and financial competency skills, marketing and sales, general business and human relations skills. The entrepreneurial abilities of graduates are perceived differently by various parties.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Entrepreneurship education, a sort of intervention program, was introduced into Nigeria's tertiary education subsector in 2006 to address the unemployment problem and redirect the attention of our youths/graduates towards job creation by instilling in them relevant entrepreneurial skills that will positively contribute to the growth and development of the economy.
The program's goals and objectives appear to be commendable; however, in order to achieve these goals and objectives, it will be necessary to implement certain mechanisms. This programme's inclusion in the curricula of all Nigerian tertiary institutions is intended to instill in students an entrepreneurial mindset and culture. Since the implementation of this program, graduate unemployment appears to have increased.
In 2006, the unemployment rate was 5.3%, but by 2011 it had increased to 23.9% Numerous graduates appear to be wandering the streets in search of white collar employment. Despite the introduction of entrepreneurship education, the rate of poverty, corruption, and so many other social vices has become worrisome to the government and every well-meaning citizen.
This situation is of great concern to the researchers, and if it continues, the relevance of entrepreneurship education in the school curriculum will be called into question.
The purpose of the study
The study's objectives are as follows:
Determine the impact of curriculum content on the critical thinking and business idea generation of students.
To investigate the impact of entrepreneurship pedagogy on students' shared vision and identification of business opportunities.
To evaluate the impact of entrepreneurship teaching methods on student interest and business creation.
The researcher formulated the following research hypotheses for the successful completion of the study:
H0: Entrepreneurship teaching methods do not significantly stimulate student interest and business creation.
H1: Entrepreneurship pedagogy significantly stimulates student interest and business formation.
H02: The contents of entrepreneurship curricula have no significant effect on students' critical thinking or the generation of business ideas.
H2: The entrepreneurship curriculum has a significant impact on students' critical thinking and the generation of business ideas.
Importance of the research
This study is important for policymakers and stakeholders in Nigeria as it pertains to the design of an entrepreneurship curriculum that can enhance the development of viable business ideas among Nigerian university students.
This study's findings will facilitate the development of entrepreneurial skills and aptitudes among Nigerian university students, which will in turn stimulate the propensity for job creation and reduce graduate unemployment.
This research will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the literature on entrepreneurship education by developing an intention model that will be useful for future research in related fields.
Limitations and scope of the study
Business Education undergraduate students' perceptions of community resources for the teaching and learning of entrepreneurship at Rivers State University are the focus of this study. The researcher encounters a constraint that restricts the study's scope;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The researcher has insufficient research material, thereby limiting the scope of the study.
b) TIME: The time allotted for the study does not allow for a broader scope because the researcher must combine it with other academic activities and examinations.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Entrepreneurship is defined as the process of idea generation, opportunity identification, and business planning that leads to the creation of a business or product innovation.
Entrepreneur: An entrepreneur is a person who can organize resources effectively and efficiently in pursuit of an opportunity to create value.
Entrepreneurship education is defined as any educational program or procedure aimed at encouraging entrepreneurial actions and conduct.
Entrepreneurship Curriculum Content The definition of entrepreneurship curriculum content is the information and experiences contained in the curriculum of an entrepreneurship program. Entrepreneurship Education Entrepreneurial Implementation Purpose Critical Thinking Curriculum Contents Entrepreneurship Pedagogy
Teaching techniques Shared-vision Business-Oriented Concept Generation and Opportunity Identification Business launches H1 H2 H3 Competence of Educators Dedication to Studying Business Plan Writing H4 University Assistance Programs Sharing of knowledge Innovation H5 Learning-Centeredness
Entrepreneurship Pedagogy: The teaching and learning models utilized in an entrepreneurship program.
Teaching Methods in Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship educator competence is defined as an integrated action based on skill and experience that enables individuals to effectively impart entrepreneurial-related knowledge and competencies to students.
University Support Systems: University support systems are characterized by the institutional climate, shared values, and participation in extracurricular activities related to entrepreneurship development.
Perception is the process of being conscious of one's surroundings through the senses.
Orientation Towards Learning: Orientation Towards Learning is the disposition to continuously seek out new information.
Commitment to Learning: Commitment to learning is the extent to which an individual values and promotes learning that is essential to the individual's development.
A shared vision is a collective learning focal point. Critical Thinking Critical thinking is defined as a person's ability to evaluate learning disposition and accept new ideas critically.
Individual Knowledge Sharing Individual knowledge sharing is defined as individual beliefs or behavioral routines pertinent to the dissemination of knowledge and information compiled from diverse sources that serve as a guide for future action.
. Interest: Alludes to an individual's generally continuing psychological (inclination) to reengage in specific classes, occasions, or thoughts after some time and it is particular about content.
Entrepreneurial Intention: entrepreneurial intention is defined as an individual‘s drive to make a mind ful plan to execute the behaviour of setting up a business.
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BUSINESS EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS' PERCEPTION OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES FOR THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RIVERS STATE UNIVERSITY