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This study examined the perceptions of Business Education undergraduate students at Rivers State University on community resources for the teaching and learning of entrepreneurship. The study population consists of 200 Rivers state university students. The researcher utilized questionnaires as the data gathering instrument. Descriptive Utilizing a survey research design, this study was conducted. A total of 133 respondents representing seniors, fourth-graders, third-graders, and second-graders participated in the study. The acquired data were tabulated and evaluated using straightforward percentages and frequencies.




1.1 Background of the study

Teaching and learning Entrepreneurship Education in postsecondary institutions is of the utmost importance to all parties involved. The National Policy on Education identifies Education as the “premier” vehicle for national development (FRN, 2004). It is believed that education may bring about the desired socioeconomic and political improvements in a nation. The recent call for the inclusion of Entrepreneurship Education in tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria is an indication of its importance to employment creation; as Nigeria continues to produce graduates from our various institutions who are hardly self-reliant and solely reliant on white collar jobs for sustenance due to their lack of adequate skills that will allow them to function effectively and efficiently towards the development of the economy.

Immediately following World War II, the necessity to recognize entrepreneurship education in the West began to gain attention. After World War II, which lasted six (6) years (1939-1945), the majority of economic structures collapsed, making it difficult for the government to absorb all graduates of the educational system. Though the circumstances during such eras were not the same as those in developing nations such as Nigeria. The discovery of crude oil at Oloibiri in the 1950s led to an oil boom in the country, and there were sufficient cash in the government treasury to employ all graduates of the educational system at all levels. Nigerians’ attention was redirected as a result of the fall of the oil boom, which led to economic recession and its attendant difficulties, including unemployment, poverty, and social vices such as abduction, youth unrest, and the Boko Haram insurgency. Federal Government introduced entrepreneurship education in 2006 to combat unemployment, poverty, and discontent in the country in response to the country’s rising unemployment rate (Ediagbonya, 2013; Imeokparia & Ediagbonya, 2013).

The Federal Government made the programme mandatory for all students in higher education institutions, regardless of their field of concentration, and in the majority of tertiary institutions, students are required to take entrepreneurship education as a general studies requirement. The overarching mission is to consistently promote an entrepreneurial culture and mindset among students and teachers with the aim of educating and assisting graduates of the system in launching and maintaining sustainable business enterprises (Urbano, Aponte & Toledano, 2008). The Minister of education emphasized that the National Universities Commission (NUC) had been given presidential directives by the Ministry of Education to supervise and coordinate the programme of introducing entrepreneurship education in Nigerian institutions of higher learning in collaboration with all regulatory bodies of higher institutions – the National Board of Technical Education (NBTE), National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) – to be handled by the committee.

Nigeria as a nation has worked tirelessly since the collapse of the oil boom to achieve youth independence, poverty eradication, and an improved economic status through numerous reforms and program initiatives such as Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), the National Poverty Eradication Program (NAPEP), the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), and the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), among others. Unfortunately, these program activities focused at capacity building and utilization do not appear to have helped in any manner to equip young school leavers (Youths) with the necessary skills that will empower them after they graduate (Okolocha & Okolocha, 2012).

Despite robust economic growth, the Nigerian youth unemployment rate for 2006-2008 was estimated to be 55.9%. Youth unemployment has continued to rise until the present day. By increasing their small-scale businesses, countries such as Japan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, China, India, and Korea have joined the community of industrialized nations. Nigeria, for its part, aims to enter the ranks of industrialized nations by 2020. In an effort to bridge the gap between youth unemployment and job creation, the Federal Ministry of Education has made entrepreneurship education one of the mandatory general studies for students in tertiary institutions across the country. The goal is to instill in the youths the spirit of self-reliance, which has become crucial for national economic growth and development. The essence of entrepreneurship education is to instill the attitude and culture of entrepreneurship in pupils (Akpomi, 2009; Adejimola & Olufunmilayo, 2009). Education in entrepreneurship emphasizes education for self-employment over education for paid employment. This type of schooling has become crucial in Nigeria due to the country’s high unemployment rate and the social vices and unrest that accompany it. It is claimed that this type of education may truly engage students and make them more productive and beneficial to themselves and the nation as a whole.

The growth and development of the economy rests heavily on the capabilities that our educational institutions equip their graduates with. According to Ihebereme (2010), skill acquisition is the process of obtaining or gaining effective and ready knowledge for the development of one’s aptitude and competence in a specific sector. One of the methods implemented in Nigeria to combat poverty, young unrest, sophisticated crime and corruption, rural-to-urban migration, unemployment, and other social ills is skill acquisition (Ihebereme, 2010). The purpose of skill development at the tertiary level of education in Nigeria is to equip students with more practical and less theoretical income-generating skills. Mbionwu (2008) highlighted that when youths have enough training in skills, they are able to become self-employed after completing their education; hence, they become active contributors to both community and national development. The possession of skills is crucial for avoiding adolescents from becoming social outcasts. According to Ihebereme (2008), skill acquisition (Entrepreneurship) education in the Nigerian educational system functions as a rehabilitator, re-orienter, motivator, and enabler for the underprivileged (students of poor parents). These abilities are referred to as entrepreneurial abilities (Akudolu, 2010).

Okolocha and Okolocha (2012) defined entrepreneurship abilities as business skills that one obtains in order to function effectively in a tumultuous business environment as an independent or self-employed individual in order to better one’s economic situation and the society as a whole. According to the findings of Okebukola’s (2006) study, the majority of Nigerian graduates lack self-reliance and entrepreneurship abilities. In a similar spirit, Anyakoha (1997), referenced by Olumese and Clark (2011), emphasized that training for the development of entrepreneurial skills in Nigerian colleges is not yet well articulated. The significance of entrepreneurial skills cannot be overstated, as acquiring the proper skills through business enables young school dropouts to become economically independent and self-sufficient. Entrepreneurship has been recognised globally and nationally as a strategy for building a sustainable economy, which is the central value of the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategies, according to Isike (2008). (NEEDS). Uloko and Ejinkonye (2010) noted that when youngsters are empowered through the learning of entrepreneurial skills, there is a chance that they may use those talents to establish new wealth-generating opportunities. Youth entrepreneurship empowerment requires the correct development of skills through education and training. According to the findings of a study conducted by Egwanyenga and Ranor (2012), entrepreneurial talents include managerial skills, accounting and financial competency abilities, marketing and sales, general business and human relations skills. The entrepreneurial abilities of graduates are evaluated differently by various parties.


Entrepreneurship education, a sort of intervention program, was introduced into Nigeria’s tertiary education subsector in 2006 to address the unemployment problem and redirect the attention of our youths/graduates towards job creation by instilling in them relevant entrepreneurial skills that will positively contribute to the growth and development of the economy. The program’s goals and objectives appear to be commendable; nevertheless, in order to attain these goals and objectives, it will be necessary to implement certain mechanisms. This programme’s inclusion in the curricula of all Nigerian higher institutions is intended to instill in students an entrepreneurial mindset and culture. Since the implementation of this program, graduate unemployment appears to have increased. In 2006, the unemployment rate was 5.3%, but by 2011 it had increased to 23.9% Numerous grads appear to be wandering the streets in quest of white collar employment. Despite the introduction of entrepreneurship education, the rate of poverty, corruption, and so many other social vices has grown worrying to the government and every well-meaning person. This situation is of significant concern to the researchers, and if it persists, the relevance of entrepreneurship instruction in the school curriculum will be called into question.

The purpose of the study

The study’s aims are as follows:

Determine the impact of curriculum content on the critical thinking and business idea creation of pupils.
To investigate the impact of entrepreneurship pedagogy on students’ shared vision and discovery of business possibilities.
To examine the impact of entrepreneurship teaching approaches on student interest and business creation.


The researcher formulated the following research hypotheses for the successful completion of the study:

H0: Entrepreneurship teaching approaches do not significantly boost student interest and business creation.

H1: Entrepreneurship pedagogy greatly stimulates student engagement and business formation.

H02: The contents of entrepreneurship curricula have no substantial effect on students’ critical thinking or the production of company ideas.

H2: The entrepreneurship curriculum has a substantial impact on students’ critical thinking and the production of company ideas.

Importance of the research

This study is relevant for policymakers and stakeholders in Nigeria as it pertains to the construction of an entrepreneurship curriculum that can increase the development of viable company concepts among Nigerian university students. This study’s findings will enable the development of entrepreneurial abilities and aptitudes among Nigerian university students, which will in turn stimulate the tendency for job creation and reduce graduate unemployment. This research will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the literature on entrepreneurship education by building an intention model that will be relevant for future research in related fields.

Limitations and scope of the study

Business Education undergraduate students’ perceptions of community resources for the teaching and learning of entrepreneurship at Rivers State University are the focus of this study. The researcher faces a constraint that restricts the study’s scope;

a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The researcher has insufficient research material, consequently limiting the scope of the investigation.
b) TIME: The time allotted for the study does not allow for a broader scope because the researcher must mix it with other academic activities and examinations.

Entrepreneurship is defined as the process of idea generation, opportunity identification, and business planning that leads to the formation of a business or product innovation.

Entrepreneur: An entrepreneur is a person who can organize resources effectively and efficiently in pursuit of an opportunity to produce value.

Entrepreneurship education is described as any educational program or procedure aimed at encouraging entrepreneurial acts and conduct.

Entrepreneurship Curriculum Content The definition of entrepreneurial curriculum content is the material and experiences incorporated in the curriculum of an entrepreneurship program. Entrepreneurship Education Entrepreneurial Implementation Purpose Critical Thinking Curriculum Contents Entrepreneurship Pedagogy Teaching techniques Shared-vision Business-Oriented Concept Generation and Opportunity Identification Business start-ups H1 H2 H3 Competence of Educators Dedication to Studying Business Plan Writing H4 University Assistance Programs Sharing of knowledge Innovation H5 Learning-Centeredness

Entrepreneurship Pedagogy: The teaching and learning methodologies utilized in an entrepreneurship program.

Teaching Methods in Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship educator competency is described as an integrated action based on skill and experience that enables educators to effectively impart entrepreneurial-related knowledge and competencies to students.

University Support Systems: University support systems are characterized by the institutional climate, shared ideals, and participation in extracurricular activities related to entrepreneurship development.

Perception is the process of being conscious of one’s surroundings through the senses.

Orientation Towards Learning: Orientation Towards Learning is the disposition to continuously seek out new information.

Commitment to Learning: Commitment to learning is the extent to which an individual values and encourages learning that is essential to the individual’s growth.

A shared vision is a communal learning focal point. Critical Thinking Critical thinking is described as a person’s ability to analyze learning disposition and accept new concepts critically.

Individual Knowledge Sharing Individual knowledge sharing is described as individual views or behavioral patterns pertinent to the transmission of knowledge and information compiled from varied sources that serve as a guide for future action.

Interest refers to an individual’s persistent psychological (tendency) to reengage with specific classes, events, or thoughts after a period of time, and it is content-specific.

Entrepreneurial Intention: entrepreneurial intention is described as a person’s motivation to formulate a deliberate strategy to engage in the behavior of establishing a business.




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