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Chapter one

1.0 This research issue cannot be comprehended without a succinct and unambiguous characterization of behavioural changes in organisational contexts, using Dangote Cement Company, Gboko, Benue State as a case study.


Behaviour modification comprises increasing the chance of positive behaviour while decreasing the possibility of bad behaviour. Modification is a process of intentional modification that results in increased performance.

Individual employees have a limitless learning potential due to their highly developed faculty. However, the level to which management may influence their employees’ behaviour is determined by their ability to modify or shape it. This is closely followed by what are known as “reinforcement principles”.

The reinforcement principle is an extrinsic explanation for behaviour. It is anything that strengthens the response and causes repetitions of the behaviour that preceded the reinforcement.

Thus, reinforcement is an environmental effect that occurs after a response and has the potential to modify behaviour. We mould behaviour by systematically encouraging each consecutive step that leads an individual to the desired outcome.


According to Lewin, it is a planned change and performance improvement project that comprises the management of three-phase processes, which include:

Unfreezing-reducing the forces that keep behaviour in its current state, as well as acknowledging the need for change and progress.

Movement is the development of new attitudes or behaviours, as well as the application of those changes.

Refreezing involves stabilising change at a new level and reinforcing it using supporting mechanisms such as policy, structure, or norms.

French et al. identify eight particular components of a planned change effort connected to the aforementioned process, including initial problem identification, data collection, problem diagnosis, action planning, implication, follow-up and stabilisation, consequences evaluation, and process learning.

The identification could be stated as follows: an employee’s or individual’s attitude is founded on the notion that behaviour is generally predictable.

1.1 Statement of the Problems

The problem statement elaborates on the information implied in the study’s title. It is an interrogative statement that inquires about the established or prospective link between two or more variables.

It is a statement that helps clarify, highlight, limit, and provide a distinct image of the problem under investigation. As a result, the statement emphasises the importance of achieving relevant results during this fact-finding journey.

This issue was chosen with the intention of determining what reinforcement approach should be implemented or provided to employees in an organisation to improve performance, with a specific reference to Dangote Cement Plc Gboko, Benue State. The research will also analyse or study workers’ attitudes towards work while carrying out their obligations or responsibilities.

Managers or administrators in every organisation achieve desired behaviour from employees by influencing or shaping their attitudes towards evaluating the overall success of the business or the general organisational goals.

As a result, during the course of this investigation, the researcher imagined numerous challenges, to name a few. Some of the issues are as follows:

a. Inadequate availability of materials or data (i.e. information) for the researcher to do the required research.

b. Respondents’ lack of commitment to answering inquiries.

c. Financial constraints were another challenge during the study process.

d. There was no time for research because the exam was integrated with the research job.

e. Transportation (i.e. mobility), it was quite expensive for the researcher to walk around the respondents to submit and gather information to help with the research.


The knowledge gained from this research activity will provide a sufficient constructive framework and parameters to be used in moulding or modifying behaviours to achieve organisational goals and objectives.

i. The aim shall be to answer the questions raised by the study’s problems.

ii. Be able to assess which of these modification strategies is effective in increasing productivity.

iii. The researcher will gain some knowledge from the research findings.

iv. Furthermore, the work will allow the researcher and readers to apply the recommendations provided in resolving difficulties that may occur in relation to the researched topic.

v. The research will look more at workers’ attitudes towards work and how they carry out their tasks.

vi. Most crucially, the research activity is intended to complete the requirements for the researcher to be awarded a Higher National Diploma.

1.3 Research Hypotheses

Hypotheses are statements that explain the relationship between two or more variables. They direct and place the researcher on the primary route of the investigation.

The term “hypotheses” refers to a set of assumptions that are tentatively accepted or rejected as the foundation of a research. A hypothesis is often developed by the researcher in the form of a statement whose truth or falsity is to be tested.

Types of Hypotheses

There are two types of hypotheses.

– Null Hypotheses

– Alternative Hypotheses

The null hypothesis (Ho) is one in which it is assumed that there is no difference between a parameter and a statistic.

The alternative hypotheses: Symbolically, (Ha) verifies that there is a difference between a population parameter and a statistical value. Thus, the alternative hypothesis reflects what we would expect to see if chance or sampling error did not exist.

1.3.1 Statement of Hypothesis

For the purpose of this investigation, the following hypothesis are stated:

Ho: There is no requirement to implement particular reinforcement tactics before productivity increases.

H1: There may be some reinforcement approaches that can be used to boost productivity.

Ho: That learning procedures are not required to improve performance.

H1: Employees should be encouraged to use learning strategies to improve their performance.

Ho: Motivation is not required to promote productivity.

H1: That motivation is an important motivator for increasing production.


The scope of the study outlines the areas to be covered during the period of study, including the geographical area, the problem to be addressed, the population, and the tools used in doing research.

This will allow the researcher to focus his attention on the most critical and particular objectives, reducing the loss of vital time and effort on unimportant tasks.

As a result, the study will be limited to Dangote Cement Plc Gboko, Benue State, and would include a sample size of 50 employees from the aforementioned organisation.

Again, the data to be used in this study will span five years, from 2007 to 2012, in order to conduct a thorough investigation of the subject under consideration.

1.5 Limitations of the Study

There were various circumstances that worked against the researchers’ ability to elaborate on aspects of courage relevant to the case study. The elements that create an obstruction during the process of the research work and the limitation of the study to Dangote Cement Company Gboko are:

There were few associated study materials available to the researcher, and the subject issue had not before been investigated.

The lack of financial aid from the government or business groups in project drafting impedes comprehensive research activity.

Respondents’ prejudice and reluctance to answer questions inevitably influenced the validity of research results.

Another constraint is time, as the researcher was also writing semester exams while conducting the research.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The value of this research cannot be overstated, as it is intended to serve as a reference material for future research.

It will provide a framework for managers and administrators to understand the types of reinforcement concepts to apply while interacting with their employees.

Furthermore, what constitutes behaviour changes will be underlined and communicated to both those in management positions and subordinates in the workplace.

Management staff or administrators can be made aware that employees are not encouraged to give their all when threatened with levels of punishment such as demotion and stagnant promotion.

Another significance is that personnel are shaped or transformed to achieve certain organisational goals rather than adopting individual behaviour that may be motivated by personal interests.

1.7 Definition of Key Terms

1. RESEARCH: Kerlinger (1973) defines research as the plan structure and method of investigation designed to get answers to research questions and control variables.

2. HYPOTHESIS: A declaration of supposition that has yet to be proven or rectified.

3. PRODUCTIVITY: Everth and Ebert (1985) define productivity as the ratio of output to input. It can be stated using a total factor foundation.

4. BEHAVIOUR: The Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary defines behaviour as the way a human, animal, chemical, or other entity behaves or functions in a given context.

5. MODIFICATION: According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, modification is the act or process of changing something in order to better, make it more unique, or acceptable.

6. QUESTIONNAIRE: is a data gathering technology that uses pre-prepared forms that respondents fill out. A questionnaire’s language is also short and straightforward, avoiding ambiguity and the need to exploit the respondent by having them answer questions.

7. REINFORCEMENT: making an emotion or response stronger.

8. TOOLS: A tool is an item or device that is used to do something. It can also be used to change the shape of items.

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