AVAILABILITY OF TEACHING AIDS IN THE TEACHING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RIVERS STATE’S OGBA/EGBEMA/NDONI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
The Study’s Background
Good teaching results in desired changes in students. Good teaching and learning occur when teachers are able to convey their messages to students in the simplest, most convincing, and practical ways possible, using concrete objects. According to Umoh-mac and Nkume (2006), these concrete objects are the instructional materials or teaching aids that teachers use in his teaching.
The instructional materials improve real-world teaching and learning. Instructional materials can act as a communication medium, transmitting information from the teacher to the learner in order to facilitate learning.
According to Olaitan (2002), instructional material includes all practical and skill development resources that aid in the process of teaching and learning. Instructional materials are those devices that must be present for the teacher to use while teaching in order to make the lesson more meaningful. These include textbooks, comfortable seats, and a well-ventilated classroom.
Any educational program requires instructional materials to be implemented. They are unavoidable due to the impact they have on the teaching and learning processes. There is no doubt that the essence of all teaching techniques is to expose the learner to the subject matter. There is little chance that the learner will come into contact with the subject matter unless appropriate activities and materials are used effectively.
The use of instructional materials is recommended at all stages of a child’s development and educational level. According to Uzoegwu (2001), teachers should use instructional materials in their instruction to ensure that learners’ learning is more permanent in their minds. According to the author, instructional materials provide learners with meaningful, accurate, and real-world experiences from the subject taught using instructional materials.
Instructional materials are aids that teachers bring to class to help them easily impact the lesson. These include graphs, pictures, and real-world objects. They represent the fact that the teacher wishes to impress upon the students. They are the teacher’s companion during the teaching process.
In agreement with this, Oyedele (2008) stated that without the use of teaching facilities, teaching would be less meaningful, and that students would grope in the dark for a long time before gaining a grasp of what to teach. Similarly, Chika (2001) agreed that, in addition to facilitating practical learning, teaching facilities are also necessary for actual occupational/job performance in order to achieve self-sufficiency.
It is absolutely essential that teachers, particularly business teachers, use instructional materials so that students can see, touch, and manipulate them. This would eventually increase students’ interest and achievement in the subject. In agreement with this statement, Aliyu (2001) proposed that business studies, as a vocational education program, cannot function without adequate use of instructional materials such as typewriters, dictation machines, and tape recorders, among others.
Thus, instruction materials are any materials used by a teacher to easily teach a business studies subject with a clear understanding, contract, and concrete example to aid in the teaching and learning of a business studies subject. In light of the foregoing, this study focused on the evaluation of instructional materials used in the teaching and learning of business studies in secondary schools in Rivers state.
Statement of the Issue
The current state of instructional materials is nothing to write home about; some of these instructional materials are obsolete and do not correspond to current development; the few that are available are not used because some materials have lost their components that allow them to function.
Teachers attending different schools and colleges have different experiences and knowledge, which invariably has a direct effect on the utilization of materials in teaching and learning of business education subjects in secondary schools in Rivers state.
Obi (2008) observed that many schools are unable to teach business studies due to a lack of business studies teachers and equipment. The poor performance of students in business studies subject, as lamented by Odoh (2001), must have been due to the non-utilization of instructional materials in classroom, so the assessment of utilization of instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies subject in secondary schools in Rivers state became necessary.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary goal of this research is to evaluate the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of business studies in secondary schools in Rivers state. The study specifically seeks to evaluate the:
The extent to which instructional materials are available for use in the teaching and learning of business studies subjects.
The extent to which teachers use instructional materials in the teaching and learning of business studies subjects.
Challenges for teachers in using instructional materials in the teaching and learning of business studies.
Strategies for increasing teacher use of instructional materials in business studies teaching and learning.
QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
The study will be guided by the following research questions:
What is your opinion on the availability of instructional materials used in the teaching and learning of business studies in secondary schools?
To what extent do secondary school teachers evaluate the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of business studies?
What is your assessment of the challenges that teachers face when using instructional materials to teach and learn business studies in secondary schools?
What is the evaluation of strategies for improving teachers’ use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of business studies in secondary schools?
The following null hypotheses will be tested at the 0.05 level of significance for the study:
Ho1: There is no statistically significant difference in the mean score assessment of male and female Business studies teachers on the extent of availability of instructional material utilization in teaching and learning of business education subjects in Rivers state secondary schools.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean score assessment of male and female business studies teachers on the extent to which teachers use instructional materials in teaching and learning of business studies subjects in Rivers state secondary schools.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean score assessment of male and female business studies teachers on the challenges faced by teachers in the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of business studies subjects in Rivers state secondary schools.
HO4: ON THE STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING TEACHERS, THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN SCORE ASSESSMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE BUSINESS STUDIES TEACHERS. IN RIVERS STATE, INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE USED IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF A BUSINESS EDUCATION SUBJECT.
THE STUDY’S IMPORTANCE
The findings of this study will be useful to the government in its planning and decision-making. It would aid in policy development, implementation, evaluation, and reform. The study’s findings will reveal to the government the instructional materials required for effective business teaching and learning. The government would make use of
The study’s findings will be used to create an effective training package for teachers in the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of business subjects in secondary schools. The findings would also assist the government in providing adequate instructional materials for the teaching and learning of business studies subjects in schools.
The study’s scope and limitations
The availability of teaching aids in the teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools in Ogba Egbema Ndoni local government of Rivers state is the subject of this study. The study focused on assessing the availability and utilization of teaching aids and did not consider the effects of the presence or absence of teaching aids in the study area’s junior secondary schools. Two major constraints hampered this study: time and money.
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