# Project Materials

## ANALYSIS OF AREAS OF DIFFICULTIES AMONG MATHEMATICS STUDENTS IN YENAGOA L.G.A OF BAYELSA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY

Mathematics is large, complex, and has elements that are interdependent. The employment of simple operations such as division, ratios, percentages, addition, subtraction, word problem translation, and symbol use across mathematics discourse demonstrate the interdependence of mathematical concepts, whereas the interconnected aspects according to Robertson and Wright (2014)

This suggestion exposes the requisite knowledge that underlies difficulty or non-difficulty of mathematics as a subject. As a result, students with poor logical reasoning and analytical skills might struggle with specific topics.These students have type of difficulty which would inhibit their perception of pattern. Students with strong reasoning abilities and intelligence may be adept at grasping some mathematical concepts, but they may find some challenging.

The word “difficulty of topics” thus refers to what constitutes a “permanent hitch” that makes procedural approach to cognition of a mathematics idea a dreadful chore all of the time, rather than the incapacity of a pupil to get a pass grade in a collection of mathematics questions.In identifying students’ difficulties with mathematics topics, Robertson and Wright (2014) stated that Mathematical thinking, mathematical ideas, and grasping basic mathematical topics are all tough for pupils.Elif (2015) it was also suggested that students have trouble creating mathematical interpretations for symbols.This view was re-emphasized by Janvier, Giorardon and Morand ().

The majority of the difficulty in interpreting some mathematical topics, according to the experts, stems from the fact that also mathematical symbols can have different meanings in different contexts. In mathematics, conceptual knowledge necessitates following an algorithm that guides the solver through a correct process to a valid answer.

For formalization and effective practice, students should be permitted to actively participate in each stage of a problem-solving algorithm during instruction. Some pupils’ troubles can be related to incorrect representation and handling of problems like as fractions, ratios, extrapolation, and incorrect algorithms when handling a topic in mathematics (Silver, 2013; Ben – Zeev, 2016).

The value of mathematics to an individual and society is well recognized. The importance of mathematics in many aspects of life, as well as recent debates about kids’ arithmetic achievement, have piqued the interest of science educators, researchers, parents, and educational authorities in their search for a solution over the last two decades.

The chronic poor level of mathematics achievement among Nigerian pupils at various public examinations has drew the attention of significant players in education throughout the years. Students’ math performance has been consistently weak and mediocre.Despite all of the efforts made by policymakers at various levels, little progress has been made in terms of student accomplishment in mathematics.Students’ achievement in mathematics at the school level continues to decline, according to data from the two public examination bodies, the West African Examination Council (WAEC) and the National Examination Council (NECO) SSCE. This is due to the fact that many students are seen to have a negative attitude towards some difficult of the subject which has affected their attitude to the subject in general.

Researchers have discovered that some issues, such as mathematics anxiety and attitude toward mathematics learning, are innate in students.Mensah, Okyere and Kuranchie (2013) states that attitude is a notion that deals with a person’s style of thinking, acting, and behaving, and it has a significant impact on the learner.However, Yara () posits that teachers who have a positive attitude about mathematics can encourage their pupils to have a positive attitude toward some difficult topics in mathematics.

The student’s attitude toward a learning process, whether natural or learned, impacts his room behavior and emotional attitude toward mathematics. Hart (2013) evaluate attitudes toward difficult of mathematics from multiple angles, and define an individual’s attitude toward some difficult of mathematics as a more complicated entity characterized by the emotions he associated with mathematics, his views about mathematics, and how he behaves toward mathematics generally.This study is therefore aimed atanalyzing of difficulties among mathematics students in yenagoa l.g.a of bayelsa state.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Mathematics has a significant impact on how people approach various aspects of life, whether private, social, or cooperative. A quick glance at the national mathematics curriculum demonstrates the concepts of mathematics knowledge’s relevance in our formal and informal daily activities. Mathematical procedures are difficult to learn for students of the subject field.Despite enhanced teaching methods and motivated learning practices, pupils have been performing poorly in mathematics for over a decade, according to the WAEC chief examiners’ report. This tendency is discouraging to students who want to pursue higher education in fields that need a credit in mathematics and a general understanding of the subject.As a result, the student must be given the opportunity to describe their challenges in the subject area as well as the likely causes of such difficulties.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The major purpose of this study is toanalysis of of difficulties among mathematics students in yenagoa l.g.a of bayelsa state. Other specific objectives of the study are:

1) To examine students perceptions and belief towards of difficulties in Mathematics

2) To examine factors influencing students attitudes towards of difficulties in mathematics

3) To examine the effect of of difficulties in mathematics on students’ academic performance in Yenagoa L.G.A.

4)To examine the causes of poor academic performance in mathematics among students in Yenagoa

5) To recommend ways of efficiently teaching of difficulties in mathematics by mathematics teachers.

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1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following shall guide this study and in the course of this research, we shall attempt to find answers to the following questions:

1) What are student’s perceptions and belief towards of difficulties in Mathematics?

2) What are factors influencing student’s attitudes towards of difficulties in mathematics?

3)Whatis the effect of of difficulties in mathematics on students’ academic performance in Yenagoa L.G.A.

4) What are the causes of poor academic performance in mathematics among students in Yenagoa?

5) To recommend ways of efficiently teaching of difficulties in mathematics by mathematics teachers.

1.5HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

Hypothesis

HO:There is no significant effect of of difficulties in mathematics on students’ academic performance in Yenagoa L.G.A

H1:There is a significant effect of of difficulties in mathematics on students’ academic performance in Yenagoa L.G.A

1.6SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study has great significance. First of all, the study findings will provide knowledge and information onanalysis of of difficulties among mathematics students in yenagoa l.g.a of bayelsa state. It will also provide knowledge and guidelines that may be of help to policymakers. The research is of importance to planners, implementers and recipients of the curriculum in the field of mathematics in schools in Yengoa.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study would cover Analysis of Areas of Difficulties among Mathematics Students in Yenagoa L.G.A Of Bayelsa State

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher was faced with the following constraints in carrying out this study:

Time: The time within the researcher is too short to carry on the detail study on this topic.

Resources: Another constraint of the researcher is financial resources to carry on the detail study of this topic.

Data: Another limitation to this study will be lack of data to make valid study on the research problem.

1.9 AL DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS

DIFFCULTIES:the quality or state of being hard to do, deal with, or understand: the quality or state of being difficult underestimated the difficulty of the task has difficulty reading climbs stairs with difficulty.

MATHEMATICS:Mathematicians seek and use patterns to formulate new conjectures; they resolve the truth or falsity of such by mathematical proof when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, mathematical reasoning can be used to provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exists. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry.

ANALYSIS:To get a better grasp of a complex topic or material, analysis is the process of breaking it down into smaller bits. Although analysis as a formal idea is a new creation, it has been used in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle.

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