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Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

The invention of the steam engine marked the beginning of the modern era of maritime transportation. Wooden ships and sails gave way to iron ships propelled by steam. A long period of growth in maritime transport followed, as trade demands were better met and transport activities could be forecasted more accurately.

Trading horizons widened, and the global economy developed. Transit times were no longer determined by prevailing winds, and passenger and freight traffic grew considerably.

The introduction of the jet engine disrupted the market for long-haul ocean passenger transport, as passengers shifted away from long ocean liner voyages and towards more convenient plan travel.

Between 1950 and 2000, passenger vessels underwent major changes. In 2000, only ferries and cruise ships remained in the majority of the industrialised world, with some small passenger ships still operating inter-island services in remote areas of Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Caribbean, as well as on major rivers such as the Nile and Amazon.

Despite the increasing volume of goods moving by air, the majority of international goods travels via water. Cargo transported by ship is divided into two categories: bulk and unitized cargo.

The former is typically transported on tramp vessels and includes both liquid (including crude oil and oil products) and dry bulk, with iron ore, cereals, and coal having the biggest transport quantities. Liner ships convey unitized cargo (mainly containers).

Unitization is the process of condensing cargo into a more manageable shape for transportation, such as a pallet or container. There are other varieties of vessels to meet specialised demands, but these broad categories give a good starting point for understanding marine transport and port systems.


Liner shipping firms provide scheduled transportation services to third-party logistics service providers and cargo owners whose markets are increasingly worldwide.

Rather than contracting for the entire vessel, as is the case in the tramp sector, cargo owners only purchase the space they require at a given moment, sharing the vessel with numerous others.

Containers may hold the majority of the world’s component components, semi-finished products, and finished commodities. The movement of commodities from one country to another in the car parts industry is an ideal example of items being transported via the liner sector of the shipping market.^ x. 3 X. J

Container traffic is crucial because timely delivery of the container’s contents generates jobs and revenue for a broad population. Container trade must continue to increase in order for many countries’ economies to thrive in the future.

Manufacturers can buy components from multiple sources, combine them in one or more sites for assembly, and then transport them to a third location for sale. Sometimes component components travel seven or eight times before reaching the retail market.

The tramp market moves both dry and liquid bulk items. In contrast to the liner carrier, the tramp vessel does not follow a set timetable or itinerary, but rather sails to fulfil current demand with a service in which one ship typically transports cargo for a single cargo owner.

The successful operator can match the ship’s capability to market demand while minimising the amount of ballast cruises (those without cargo). Shipowners provide vessels on a journey or time basis.

The cargo owner can charter vessels from the ship owner or operator for as little as one journey or as long as the ship’s life. The charter contract may solely cover the vessel itself, as in a bareboat charter, or it may include crew in journey or time charters.

Not all oil commerce vessels operate in the charter market; several are owned by oil firms and solely transport crude oil from port storage depots to refineries, as well as processed goods from the refinery to local distribution points.

1.1 Background of the Research

Nigeria has 8,600 kilometres of inland waterways. The Niger River and its branch, the Benue River, are the longest, but the most heavily used, particularly by bigger powered boats and for business, are in the Niger Delta and along the coast from Lagos Lagoon to Cross River.

The history of transport in Nigeria extends back to pre-colonial times. During this time, transit infrastructure like as roads, railways and air travel were virtually non-existent, with an emphasis on the bush route.

Nigeria’s forms of transport currently include roads, trains, aircraft, inland waterways, coastal waters, the deep sea, and pipelines (Anyanwu et al. 1997). Road construction has long been recognised as having the potential to boost investment, trade, GDP, and alleviate poverty levels.

Not only does road transport infrastructure assist the direct provision of services to consumers, but it also offers intermediate inputs into other sectors’ output, increasing factor productivity.

During the Stone Ages, early boats evolved to allow for river movement as well as fishing in rivers and off coast. It has been argued that vessels capable of a long sea journey were required for humanity to reach Australia approximately 40,000-45,000 years ago.

As civilization progressed, larger vessels for trade and warfare emerged. Galleys first appeared in the Mediterranean around 3000 BC. Galleys were eventually replaced by ocean-going sailing ships, such the Arabic caravel in the 13th century, the Chinese treasure ship in the early 15th century, and the Mediterranean man-of-war in the late 15th century.

During the Industrial Revolution, the first steamboats and later diesel-powered ships were created. Submarines were eventually designed primarily for military purposes, with the intention of benefiting the general public.

In the meantime, specialty ships for river and canal transportation emerged. Canals were created in Mesopotamia around 4000 BC. The Indus Valley Civilization of Pakistan and North India (from around 2600 BC) featured the world’s earliest canal irrigation system.

[1] China’s Grand waterway was the longest waterway in antiquity. It is 1,794 kilometres (1,115 miles) long and was designed to transport Emperor Yang Guang between Beijing and Hangzhou.

The works began in 605, while the canal’s oldest sections could date back to around 486 BC. Canals were built in Europe during the Middle Ages, namely in Venice and the Netherlands.

Pierre-Paul Riquet began organising the building of France’s 240-kilometer-long Canal du Midi in 1665, and it opened in 1681. In the Industrial Revolution, inland canals were created in England and later in the United States before railways were developed. Specialised vessels were also created for fishing and, later, whaling.

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

The current concerns and challenges of water transport in our country, Nigeria, are stated below, which motivated this main line of research activity.

1.The water level in rivers, particularly the Niger and Benue, falls seasonally and becomes practically dry during the summer months.

2.Reduced flow owing to water diversion for irrigation, for example, in the River Benue, making it harder for steamers to navigate.

3.Silting reduces navigability.

4.Waterfalls and cataracts cause challenges with smooth sailing.


The primary goal of this research is to determine how to ensure a safety measure for water transportation and to assess the impact of having a safety water transportation system, which includes the following.

1.Evaluate the water route transit system.

2. To investigate the impact of poor water transport on the transportation system.

3.To identify possible measures to improve the water transportation routes.

4.Make appropriate recommendations to the government to improve the country’s water transportation infrastructure.

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