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This study intended to establish a link between leadership styles and organisational performance. The study employed a case study approach, with a sample size of 60 employees drawn from a population of 100.

The target population was divided into departments, and a basic random sampling process was used to select departmental representatives, who were then combined to create the final 60 sample components.

Data on the sample was collected via a triangulation of questionnaires and interviews. An analysis of the collected data revealed that Zenith Bank Finances managers’ autocratic leadership style influences subordinates through negative motivational methods, resulting in malicious obedience to orders, which has a negative impact on both individual and organisational performance.

However, in addition to leadership style, the study discovered that bad employee performance, poor motivational techniques, low staff morale, and a lack of resources all have an impact on a company’s effectiveness.

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction.

Leadership is a challenging research field across all sectors, whether corporate or public. It is unclear which styles and behaviours are most effective for organisational effectiveness.

Linking LG Finance’s leadership styles to organisational performance is difficult since LG Finance’s performance measurements are influenced by a variety of confounding variables. This study, however, seeks to determine whether there is a link between leadership styles and LG Finance’s performance.

LG Finances has seen a reduction in output during the last five years as a result of poor employee performance, inadequate motivational techniques, low staff morale, and a lack of resources.

The lower output was considered to be the outcome of LG Finances’ leadership methods. Given this background, the researcher recognised an opportunity to conduct research to see whether there is a link between leadership styles and organisational effectiveness.

In order to increase performance, managers at LG Finances used a comprehensive and coordinated approach of managing human resources and their performance to achieve the organisation’s goals.

However, this did not appear to have altered much, since the researcher saw that the organisation was experiencing poor growth due to rapid staff turnover. The performance management technique was adopted to monitor employees’ performance in accordance with the organization’s goals.

Performance Standards were evaluated in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, taking into account discipline, timeliness, job quality, quantity, and time spent on a given task. It was also measured by the number of customer complaints, praises, and the amount of time personnel spent attending to customers.

According to Lawal, A.A. (1993), leadership is the practice of persuading others to work freely towards an organisational objective with confidence. “leadership is generally defined simply as the process of influencing people to direct their efforts towards achievement of some particular goal or goals” .

In the words of Koontz et al. (1985), “Leadership is generally defined simply as the art of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals” . This term can be expanded to encompass not just a willingness to labour, but also zeal and confidence.

Nwachukwu, C.C.(2000) defines leadership as “an act that involves influencing others to act towards the attainment of a goal.” Ubeku, A.A. (1975) defines leadership as the act of encouraging or causing individuals to execute specific tasks in order to achieve stated objectives. Leadership is the act of causing rather than allowing events to occur.

The leader accomplishes this by influencing the group both intrinsically and extrinsically. Even though leadership is the most apparent of all managerial tasks. Especially because it deals with so many people.

It has been variously described to as directly, commanding, guiding, inspiring, initiating, and activating. Regardless of the denotation employed, they all serve the same objective. The user, as the most conspicuous element, suggests a relationship in which one person controls the behaviour of others.

Sikula, A.F. (1996). Leadership has distinct interpretations for many authors. Some have understood leaders in basic terms such as influence, the art or process of persuading people to work readily and enthusiastically towards collective goals (Koontz et al., 1978).

The emphasis of this definition is that ideally, people should be encouraged to develop not only willingness to work, but also willingness to work with zeal and confidence.

Leadership has also been interpreted more specifically as the use of authority in decision making exercised as an attribute of position, personal knowledge, or wisdom.

Ejiofor, P. (1989) defined leadership as a social influence process in which the leader seeks voluntary participation of subordinates in an Similarly, Tennenbaun et al. (I968) defined leadership as interpersonal influence applied in situations and directed through communication towards the achievement of a certain goal(s).

Adebakin and Gbadamosi (1996) defined leadership as the process of influencing and directing the activities of an organised group towards the achievement of the group’s set objectives.

The preceding Lions demonstrate that leadership is based on the function of personality, behavioural category, the role of a leader and their ability to achieve effective performance from others, interpersonal behaviour, and the process of communication.

Regardless of the differences, these definitions have at least three essential implications. For starters, leadership is a process carried out by specific individuals (leaders). It is an ongoing activity within an organisation.

Second, it involves other people in the form of subordinates who, via their willingness, are impacted by the leader.

As a result, by facilitating the leadership process, subordinates formalise the leader’s authority. Third, the goal of leadership is to attain goals and objectives, indicating that leaders’ attempts to influence subordinates are directional and hence aim at a certain level of achievement.

1.1 Background to the Study.

Participative leadership is described as the process by which the superior and his or her subordinates make joint decisions or share influence in decision making (Somech, 2005). It is not a new concept, as it has a long and diverse history.

It began to thrive in the 1980s as a result of management policy initiatives inspired by the new excellence movement and the emergence of human resource management (Beardwell and Holden, 1997).

It has numerous potential benefits. It is likely to improve decision-making quality (Scully et al., 1995); contribute to the quality of employees’ work lives (Somech, 2002);

promote employee motivation to work (Armenakis et al., 1993; Locke and Lutham, 1990; Yammarino and Naughton, 1992); and increase employee satisfaction and organisational commitment (Smylie, Lazarus, & Brownlee-Congers, 1996).

Furthermore, in team contexts, a participative leadership style is vital since it leads to high levels of team results (Sagie et al., 2002) and encourages team members to share their ideas (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993).

These scholars reflect a generally held belief that participative leadership has significant benefits for organisational and team effectiveness. It appreciates the employee more than the job, and such leadership behaviour is likely to improve employee engagement to the business (Bass, 1981).

Male workers’ work attitudes embrace a directive style of leadership with an emphasis on performance, whereas female workers choose a participative style of leadership with a focus on subordinate commitment (Werner et al. 2007).

These differing attitudes towards employment are gender-specific (Heilman et al., 1995). Understanding gender as a key element of work behaviour has never been more relevant in African businesses (Ijeoma, 2010).

With the introduction of women into organisations, the study of organisational behaviour has expanded to include both male and female work conduct (Deal and Stevenson, 1998). However, there are few documented substantial differences between men and women (Kunkel and Burleson, 1999).

Leadership is an important aspect of management that plays a vital role in our daily lives. It still requires the ability to lead and interact with others. One thing about human groups is that there is always a leader; otherwise, the organisation cannot survive to fulfil its goals.

The ability of a leader to hold power successfully, as well as the presence of an opportunistic scenario, are required for group leadership success. The conflicts that arise among organisational members stem from disagreements about both the nature of the goals to which people aspire and the practice of leadership.

Leadership, as we use the term in this work, refers to actions made within the context of an organisation that impact how other organisational members behave. It has been noticed that leadership and management have a deep understanding of what the organisation can achieve provided they are given the appropriate level of acknowledgment.

Leadership has been defined as the source of influence inherent in one’s position in an organisational hierarchy. These include organizational-sanctioned incentives and punishment authority, as well as export power.

However, it can be observed that subordinates within the organisation, while not all, enjoy the influence that they provide across the upper organisational hierarchy.

Leadership is critical in organisations because accomplishments and results are measured against the tracts projected by the leader. Leadership includes ultimate power, but it also has the good ability to persuade others and make innovative decisions.

Problems are likely to arise in any well-known organisation. Decision making has been shown to cause conflicts in whatever they are doing to achieve organisational goals. In this light, leadership acts are those that assist a given organisation in accomplishing its stated goals (Barelas 1960).

In general, the act of controlling other people implies uncertainty reduction, which entails making the type of decision that allows the organisation to progress towards its goals despite a variety of internal and external obstacles.

It is worth noting that in today’s society, not only the presence of rewards (positive and negative) or incentive appraisals can promote productivity, but also a sense of belonging. Further expressions include, “Is this my father’s work?” “They can dismiss me, I don’t care” , “why should I kill myself for them” ?

There are numerous terms commonly used by Nigerian workers to convey their attitude towards work. Whenever any of these expressions are heard, one will readily know that something is wrong somewhere in the entire system, so meaningful economic development, growth, and self-reliance would not be obtained where unsuitable leadership style is in place.

Therefore, how far an organisation succeeds in achieving its goals depends to a large extent on how the management and workers relationship are handled in the organisation, and this effect workers psychological expectations.

In light of the aforementioned, the purpose of this study is to examine the leadership style that the organisation should use to improve its performance. The study will also look at leadership ideology and its functional relationship to worker performance in a manufacturing organisation.

As a result, more ways of finding a long-term solution to the multiple issues that leadership styles pose to worker performance must be explored. The increasing intensity of competition has prompted organisational managers to invent and learn new techniques and mechanisms to improve organisational efficiency and effectiveness.

This activity necessitates the use of production-related resources such as money, materials, and labour, all of which must be confirmed appropriately for optimal results.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Leadership style has become an extremely important aspect of management. In reality, it has piqued the interest of many management scientists, who have taken on the tough task of writing on the subject in management literature.

Improper leadership skills inside an organisation have a negative impact on both subordinates and the achievement of organisational goals.

For a long time, due to a variety of issues, including Nigeria’s ‘hegemonic’ nature of communication, youths have little opportunities to participate in administration or have their voices heard. However, with advances in communication technology, the status quo appears to be changing.

An effective leader inspires followers in the desired direction to attain desired outcomes. Different leadership styles can have an impact on an organization’s efficacy and performance.

Transformational leadership is a more reliable predictor of both job and overall satisfaction. According to the findings of the study, a competitive and innovative culture influences organisational effectiveness.

Leadership style influences organisational culture, which in turn affects organisational performance. So the purpose of this research is to determine the consequences on organisational performance.

1.3 Goal of the Study

The primary focus and premise of this research project is on the research issue itself, which is participatory leadership style and its impact on organisational performance. Other objectives that will be addressed in this effort include:

To identify conflicts and issues with participative leadership in the organisation.

To study the fundamental reasons why an organization’s performance is positive or negative.

To illustrate the benefits of a participative leadership style on organisational performance.

To determine whether or not Zenith Bank Wukari’s participative leadership style has an impact on their organisational success.

To critically assess the nature of leadership styles as they effect employee performance at Zenith Bank Wukari, Taraba State.

1.4 Research questions.

The research is directed by the same research topic, which will be delivered and disseminated among the researchers’ areas of study, who are the respondents to this research project and include Zenith Bank Wukari followers, managers, and leaders. Sample research questions are:

Is there any conflict in the participative leadership style used by Zenith Bank Wukari management?

Is there a link between excellent organisational performance and participative leadership style at Wukari Zenith bank branch?

Which leadership style do you favour above participative leadership in terms of boosting organisational performance?

Are there any successful and efficient leadership styles at Zenith Bank Wukari?

1.5 Research hypotheses.

The researcher developed some of the hypotheses that will be examined to support this investigation. The hypothesis will be tested at the 0.05 level of significance with the chi-square method and correlation analysis on the SPSS report sheet.

The research hypotheses are as follows.

Hypothesis 1: There is a significant association between participative leadership style and Zenith Bank Wukari’s organisational performance.

Hypothesis 2: There is a substantial association between participative leadership style and follower performance improvement.

1.6 Scope of the Study.

This research will focus on two Zenith banks in Wukari LGA, Taraba State, and will investigate participatory leadership style and its impact on organisational performance.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

Several military constraints were faced during the course of this write-up. They are:-

Inaccessibility to some papers arose as a result of security measures enforced by the organization’s administration. It was also not able to conduct an in-depth analysis of these records, which would have aided in the development of the project.

Time was a major constraint on this write-up; there was insufficient time to study the intricacies of the many fields of the organization’s information department. Additionally, the textbook required for this write-up was not available in the institution library.

1.8 Importance of the Study.

This study will clearly illustrate the significance of participative leadership style and its impact on organisational success. It is expected that the findings of this study will provide extensive information on the effects of participative leadership style strategies in achieving high organisational performance. The study is also expected to benefit both leaders and followers, researchers, and the organisation as a whole.

The study’s conclusions should be useful to the organization’s management. The findings are intended to raise awareness among leaders about the role of participative leadership style in organisational effectiveness.

Through this exposure, managers and leaders were able to recognise the advantages of participative leadership over other styles of leadership. It is feasible that as a result of this consequence, leaders and management will realistically change to the use of a participative leadership style in order to achieve greater and higher organisational performance. As a result, followers would be more focused on their jobs and accomplish better results.

As a result, it will go a long way towards increasing the efficacy of business administration students in society by enabling them to put what they have learned into practice, thereby contributing to the growth of the organisation at any level and location.

The research will also benefit the researcher. This is because the study will expose the researcher to a wide range of related topics while conducting his research. This will improve the researcher’s experience, expertise, and understanding of participative leadership styles.

1.9 Operational Definitions of Terms

Leadership is the practice of leading and inspiring employees to accomplish task-oriented activities for the organisation.

Style refers to the numerous behaviour patterns used by leaders to control and influence employees.

Productivity is the act of completing an action or a piece of work.

Motivation is the force that influences, enthuses, and directs employee energy towards the achievement of established goals.

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