Project Materials

GENERAL

AN ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF SOCIAL STUDIES AND THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION

Do You Have New or Fresh Topic? Send Us Your Topic



PROJECT INFORMATION

ABSTR
The objective of this study was to find out the relationship between students’
perception of Social Studies and their academic performance in the subject
in Colleges of n in Kaduna State. The respondents of the study
comprised NCE 2 and NCE 3 students of Social Studies at the
College of n in Zaria and the Kaduna State College of n in
Gidan Waya. The data for the study was collected using a questionnaire with
reliability coefficient of 0.87. The Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation
Coefficient was used to test the hypotheses formulated for the study. The
hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance with df = 232. The
findings were as follows:
1. The Social Studies students in colleges of education in Kaduna
State do not record high academic performance in the subject.
2. Students’ perception of the Social Studies curriculum does affect
their academic performance in the subject
3. Students’ perception of relevance of Social Studies education has
no bearing on their academic performance in the subject.
4. Students’ perception of public attitude towards Social Studies has
no impact on their academic performance in the subject.
5. Students’ general perception of Social Studies does not affect their
academic performance in the subject.
Based on these findings the following recommendations were proffered
for Social Studies researchers and policy makers.
a. There is need for further research in order to determine the actual
cause of students’ failure to display high performance in Social
Studies.
b. The NCE Social Studies curriculum should be reviewed in terms of
volume and difficulty.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Social Studies as a school subject is a relatively new discipline in the world’s
educational arena. It only emerged in America and Europe in the early 20th
century, and reached Nigeria not long after her independence from Britain in
1960 (Aina, Adeyoyin, Obilo & Ahmadu, 1982). The first national primary
school curriculum on Social Studies in Nigeria was developed in 1971
(NERDC, 2003).
Social Studies evolved in the Nigerian educational system as a problemsolving
field of study. The European colonizer left behind for Nigerians a
system of education that, as Fafunwa (1974:194) put it, ‘alienated Nigerians
from their cultural environment’. Furthermore, the new nation of
independent Nigeria, consisting of hitherto autonomous contiguous peoples,
was faced with the enormous challenge of a common national orientation for
her diverse socio-cultural groups. Consequently, the series of postimpendence
educational reforms that led to the establishment of Social
Studies in the Nigerian school system had, according to Akinlaye (1981:5),
the following underlying motives:
(a) The need to make education more relevant to the needs
of the individual and society; (b) The need to use
education for national integration and social and economic
development; (c) The need to develop the right
societal values; (d) The need to make an individual
responsive to the society in which he lives.
In a nutshell, Social Studies came to Nigeria, according to Balyejusa
(1981:10-12), as a “corrective study” to redress the educational ills of the
colonial era as well as to address the present and future socio-intellectual
needs of Nigeria and Nigerians. According to Okam (1998:9-10), it was “the
socio-civic function of Social Studies that recommended it to many African
educators” to the extent that “the National Policy on n gave it a preeminent
place within the core subjects of the schools curricula in the new 6-
3-3-4 system of education established in 1982”.
In view of its relative newness, however, Social Studies is still a
discipline in identity crisis of some sort. Research authorities advise that
personal experiences constitute a source of information for topics in research
so researchers should make use of that source (Kolo,2003, and Olayiwola,
). Indeed, it was the researcher’s experiences from two separate
incidents that led him to appreciate the problem of identity facing the
discipline of Social Studies, as a result of which the researcher intended to
undertake this study.
The first incident occurred in August when the researcher was
asked to teach the course “Introduction to Social Studies” in the Long
Vacation Term (LVT) programme in the Faculty of n at the
Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria. The researcher sadly discovered that
most of the students in the Social Studies class could not adequately explain
what constituted Social Studies education in spite of the fact that most of
them, having studied Social Studies at the Nigeria Certificate of n
(NCE) level, had been teaching Social Studies in primary and junior
secondary schools for quite sometime. More sadly, these students appeared
to be harbouring some feelings of inferiority as students of Social Studies –
largely due to somewhat unfavourable public attitude towards the discipline.
One of them narrated to the class, for instance, that when she informed an
uncle that she had secured admission to read Social Studies at the Ahmadu
Bello University, the uncle’s sneering remark was this: “So that you can go
and be telling people stories at the end!… You should have gone in for
something better!” In a rejoinder, another student in the class reported being
asked sarcastically by a friend: “Have you seen a professor of Social Studies
before?!”
The second incident occurred in November when the researcher
prepared a paper for presentation at a conference organized by the Christian
Religious Section of the Department of n at the Ahmadu Bello
University. The theme of the conference was “The Role of Religion in a
Sustainable Democracy in Nigeria”. And the topic of the researcher’s paper
was “Christian-Muslim Dialogue: A Prerequisite for Sustainable Democracy
in Nigeria”. A senior colleague in another section saw the topic of the
researcher’s paper and protested: “But you’re in Social Studies – what’s your
business with a conference on religion?! You’re not in Islamic Studies,
you’re not in Christian Religious Studies…” The researcher was stunned to
discover that even a senior educationist like that colleague did not appear to
have a fair idea of what constituted the discipline of Social Studies which is
a core subject in the Nigerian school system.
The experiences cited above have significant implications for Social
Studies in Nigeria. Research findings have indicated that Nigeria is a kind of
society in which parents, relatives and indeed peer groups wield significant
influence over the career choice of students (Oladele, 2000). It has also been
found that career choice by most Nigerian students, especially those from
high social classes, is driven by societal glamour and prestige attached to
the type of career involved (Gesinde, in Ipaye, 1986). In view of all that, it is
safe to presume that the perceived negative view being held by the general
public about Social Studies education will go a long way in producing a poor
perception of Social Studies education in the psyche of the Nigerian student.
In fact, this presumption is well substantiated by the researcher’s observation
of academic inferiority complex in the Social Studies students as recounted
above. The operant conditioning theories of Pavlo (1927) and Skinner
(1953), which state that positive reinforcement encourages learning while
negative reinforcement discourages learning, is of relevance to the point at
stake. Poor public attitude towards Social Studies is undoubtedly a negative
reinforcement for the Social Studies student. There is a story of a Nigerian
illiterate father who refused to sponsor his son to study veterinary medicine
at university because in his (i.e. the father’s) view any illiterate could take
care of cows and goats so he saw no justification in going to university
merely to learn how to look after cows and goats (Oladele, 2000). This
suggests that Social studies students in Nigeria may be faced with lack of
due motivation and support from their parents if the parents have poor
perception of the subject.
The researcher also observed a general state of poor academic
performance in the Social Studies classes mentioned above. For instance, in
a class of 21 students only 4(i.e 19%) students obtained the average mark of
50% (or more) of the examination score. This eventually led the researcher
to suspect that there is a linkage between the students’ somewhat poor
perception of Social Studies and their poor academic performance in the
subject. Correlation between self-esteem and academic performance has
been reported in “a significant amount of study” (Stringer & Heath,
2008:329); and public recognition and respect for any profession/career
plays a major role in fostering sense of self-esteem among members of that
profession/career (Oyegbe, in Ughamadu, 2002). The researcher’s
observation in this respect was further corroborated by the generally poor
academic performance of Social Studies students in colleges of education
affiliated to the Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria. For instance, out of the
results of 155 students randomly selected from semester examination results
submitted to the Ahmadu Bello University (between March and May, 2008)
by two of such colleges, only 58(38%) of the students passed the
examinations.
The fact is that there can be no excellent academic performance
without effective learning. It has been well-established among psychologists
that strong motivation plays a prminant role in effective learning process,
and there can be no strong motivation to accomplish a task of learning if
there is poor perception of the task (Kuppuswamy, 1991).
It is natural of men, of course, not to appreciate or value anything they
do not really understand. In view of the ever-growing importance and
relevance of Social Studies education in the Nigerian context (NERDC,
2003), there is need for widespread education of both students and the
general public on the real nature and objectives of Social Studies so as to
nurture keen student interest in that discipline. In order to successfully
nurture student interest in the discipline of Social Studies, student perception
of that discipline must of necessity be carefully studied and clearly
understood first and foremost. Hence the topic of this research: “An
Assessment of the ship Between Students’ Perception of Social
Studies and their Academic Performance in Colleges of n in
Kaduna State”. The perception of Social Studies by students in colleges of
education is vitally important and pertinently crucial because colleges of
education are the training grounds for primary Social Studies educators in
the country.
1.2 of the Problem
According to the Nigerian nal Research and Development
Council (2003), Social Studies as a school subject was intended to enable the
Nigerian child develop the spirits of patriotism, tolerance and other types of
productive qualities of citizenship. Unfortunately, it has often been noted
that Social Studies education in Nigeria has all along been a failure in terms
of its purpose of incorporation into the Nigerian school system (Ubah, 1991;
Okam, 1998; Philips, 2001; Okam, 2002). These observers contend that the
failure of Social Studies education to nurture and develop in the Nigerian
child the spirit of good citizenship, national consciousness, positive values
and attitudes, is substantiated by the host of socio-economic and political
vices that still beset the country. It is therefore imperative to find out the
causes and possible solutions to the ineffectiveness of Social Studies
education in Nigeria.
The researcher has observed from personal interaction with some
groups of Social Studies students at the Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria
that these students are generally characterized by low morale due to their
poor perception of Social Studies education. The researcher has also
observed that the Social Studies students at the Ahmadu Bello University
and its affiliated colleges of education generally record poor academic
performance in the subject. These amount to a problem because students
with poor perception of Social Studies education do not possess the requisite
motivational force for high academic performance; and students who cannot
achieve challenging academic performance can only be of little help in
attaining the ultimate objectives of Social Studies education in Nigeria.
As Mukherjee (2002: 140) stated, “Implications from the psychology
of motivation in learning situations should be taken into serious
consideration in every programme of education”. Poor perception of a task
leads to low motivation to accomplish the task. As such, only students who
have positive perception of Social Studies education and are therefore selfconfident
and proud of the subject can be taken as reliable vehicles for the
attainment of the goals of Social Studies education in Nigeria. There is need
to study the nature and quality of students’ perception of Social Studies
education as well as the relationship, if any, between their perception of
Social Studies and their academic performance in the subject.
1.3 Research Questions
Ndagi (:37) has noted that statement of research problems in question
forms makes a research more clearly focused because the researcher will
then be looking for answers to specific questions. Thus, the following
can be drawn from the statement of the problem
presented above:
1. Do Social Studies students of Colleges of n in Kaduna State
record high academic performance in the subject?
2. Does students’ perception of the Social Studies Curriculum influence
their academic performance in the subject in Colleges of n in
Kaduna State?
3. Does students’ perception of relevance of Social Studies education
affect their academic performance in the subject in Colleges of
n in Kaduna State?
4. Does students’ perception of public attitude towards Social Studies
have impact on their academic performance in the subject in Colleges
of n in Kaduna State?
5 Does students’ general perception of Social Studies influence their
academic performance in the subject in Colleges of n in
Kaduna State?
1.4 Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are formulated for test:
1. There is no significant relationship between students’ perception of
the Social Studies curriculum and their academic performance in the
subject in Colleges of n in Kaduna State.
2. There is no significant relationship between students’ perception of
relevance of Social Studies and their academic performance in the
subject in Colleges of n in Kaduna State.
3. There is no significant relationship between students’ perception of
public attitude towards Social Studies and their academic performance
in the subject in Colleges of n in Kaduna State.
4. There is no significant relationship between students’ general
perception of Social Studies and their academic performance in the
subject in Colleges of n in Kaduna State.
1.5 Basic Assumptions
The study is based on the following assumptions:
a. Students of Social Studies in Colleges of n in Kaduna
State do not record high academic performance in the subject
because of their poor perception of the Social Studies curriculum.
b. The low academic performance of Social Studies students in
Colleges of n in Kaduna State emanates from their
perception of the subject as irrelevant to the Nigerian situation.
c. Social Studies students in Colleges of n in Kaduna State
do not attain high academic achievement in the subject because
of their belief that the public has a negative attitude towards the
subject.
d. Students of Social Studies in Colleges of n in Kaduna
State record low academic performance in the subject because of
their poor general perception of the subject.
1.6 Objectives of the Study
This research aims at investigating the relationship between students’
perception of Social Studies and their academic performance in the subject
in colleges of education in Kaduna State. The investigation centres on the
constructs outlined below:
a. Finding out the impact of students’ perception of the Social Studies
curriculum on their academic performance in the subject.
b. Determining the impact of students’ perception of relevance of
social Studies education on their academic performance in the
subject.
c. Verifying the effect of students’ perception of public attitude
towards Social Studies education on their academic performance in
the subject.
d. Determining the impact of students’ general perception of Social
Studies education on their academic performance in the subject.
The ultimate objective of these investigations is to discover how
students’ academic performance in Social Studies in Nigerian colleges of
education might be improved. Once a linkage is established between
perception and poor performance a way towards improved performance can
be reasonably proffered.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study is justified by the increasing need for Social Studies education in
Nigeria in view of her escalating societal problems, including tribalism,
ethnicism, religious intolerance, corruption, prostitution, crime and
delinquency, and a host of other societal ills. It could be argued that of all
the subjects studied in the Nigerian school system Social Studies is the most
(if not the only) appropriate for addressing Nigeria’s societal problems
educationally and comprehensively (Okam, 1998). Social Studies is a
discipline that emerged as a panacea for societal problems (Aina et al, 1982).
It is a flexible field of study with adaptive capacity and conceptual
amplitude to match with the dynamic and elastic nature of societal
conditions. As such, for the purpose of developing the discipline of Social
Studies as an educational panacea for Nigeria’s societal problems – viz:
indiscipline, disunity, crime, corruption, ethnic and religious conflicts, and a
host of other vices – the need to clarify misconceptions about Social Studies
education among Nigerian students cannot be over-emphasized.
It is instructive to note that Social Studies was one of those courses

Not What You Were Looking For? Send Us Your Topic

TRUCTIONS AFTER PAYMENT

After making payment, kindly send the following:
  • 1.Your Full name
  • 2. Your Active Email Address
  • 3. Your Phone Number
  • 4. Amount Paid
  • 5. Project Topic
  • 6. Location you made payment from

» Send the above details to our email; [email protected] or to our support phone number; (+234) 0813 2546 417 . As soon as details are sent and payment is confirmed, your project will be delivered to you within minutes.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Advertisements