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Water pollution is a severe global issue that necessitates a thorough examination and reform of water resource policies at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that it is the leading global cause of fatalities and diseases, killing more than 14,000 people every day (West, 2010; Pink, 2010). Water is required for the survival of all living organisms, yet this valuable resource is under threat as human populations grow and seek more high-quality water for home and economic purposes [UNEPG, 2012].

The importance of water to human and other biological systems cannot be overstated, and there are countless scientific and economic evidence indicating that water scarcity or pollution can lead to significant decreases in production and the death of living things (Garba et al., 2012; 2010).

Water that is clean and plentiful serves as the foundation for flourishing societies. We rely on clean water to life, but we are on the verge of a water disaster. Many African countries have experienced significant population expansion in recent years, which has been followed by an increase in urbanization, and agricultural land use.

This has forced a significant increase in the disposal of a wide range of contaminants to receiving water bodies, resulting in unfavorable impacts on the many components of the aquatic ecosystem and on fisheries [Saad et al., ].

As a result, there is a growing recognition that global water resource management and usage must be improved, as well as the volume of waste and pollution generated by human activities must be reduced on a broad scale. The quality of any body of surface or ground water is determined by natural forces as well as human activity. [Stark and colleagues, 2009; Kolawole et al., 2012].

It is now widely acknowledged that aquatic habitats cannot be regarded solely as holding tanks that provide water for human activities. her, these settings are complex matrices that require conscious management to support long-term ecosystem functioning [UNEPG, 2012].

The common sources of water made available to diverse communities in Nigeria are rapidly deteriorating due to a variety of anthropogenic reasons, the most serious of which is pollution. Galadima and colleagues (). Water pollution occurs when undesirable contaminants that have the potential to endanger human and other natural Eco systems find their way into rivers, lakes, wells, streams, boreholes, or even reserved fresh water in homes and companies.

The discharge of waste and contaminants into surface runo flowing to surface waters (including urban runo and agricultural runo, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides); waste disposal and leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering are all examples of water pollution.

Rivers are the most important freshwater resource for humans. Unfortunately, water is being contaminated by the continuous discharge of sewage, waste, and a variety of human activities, which affects its physicochemical properties and microbiological component [Kosh and Nayar, 2013].

The increasing number and amount of , commercial, and agricultural chemicals disposed of into the aquatic system has resulted in a variety of negative consequences on aquatic bodies. Pollutants accumulate in aquatic animals both directly from dirty water and indirectly through the food chain [Hammer, 2015; Mohammed, 2009].

Pathogens, soils, sewage materials, discarded foods, cosmetics, motor emissions, construction waste, and eroding banks from rivers and other waterways are the most common contaminants (Galadima et al., ). Because of the high amount of effluent discharged into receiving waterways, natural pathogen reduction procedures are insufficient to protect public health.

According to Gerardi and Zimmarman (), wastes that interfere with water pH and produce extra bacterial components frequently impair natural processes’ ability to inactivate and eliminate infections. The amount of home and wastewater released is such that rivers receiving untreated effluent cannot provide the dilution required for their survival as excellent quality water sources.

The migration of adverse emissions is harmful to climate change [Adekunle & Eniola, 2012]. The discharge of sewage wastes into a significant volume of water may raise biological oxygen demands to the point where all available oxygen is depleted. According to current studies, the majority of Nigeria’s common fresh water sources are polluted, resulting in substantial climate impacts.

According to Kolawole et al. (), effective monitoring of physicochemical and microbiological parameters is required for water pollution control. The principal health concerns associated with drinking contaminated water are microbiological in nature [WHO, 2014].

The bacteriological analysis of water is particularly important in pollution studies because it provides a direct measurement of the harmful effects of pollution on human health [APHA, 2012]. In Nigeria, eluent discharge techniques are still too primitive, and society is in risk, particularly in the ized areas of cities.

The Federal Environ Protection (FEPA), which was intended to combat these environ violations, has had little or no effect on climate [Ezeronye & Amogu, 2009]. As a result, the study investigates water pollution in Nigeria, including its impacts, prevention, and climate impact.


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