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Utilisation of instructional material

Utilisation of instructional material

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Utilisation of instructional material

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

According to Imogie I. (ed) 1991's trend and study in educational technology in Nigeria. The materials that add beauty to teaching are referred to as instructional materials. Material and equipment, specimens and objects are what make teaching and learning more successful. The instructional material is what makes the lesson truly practical.

Furthermore, the usage of instructional material makes the teaching and learning process more fascinating and easy.

Instructional resources can be utilised at the start of the lesson to pique the students' interest in some anticipated goals.

Furthermore, instructional material is defined as the sequential arrangement of resources and equipment for a certain learning environment that is aimed at achieving a specific learning/teaching outcome in the recipient.

It is believed that instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Integrated Science give students with the possibility for effective learning while also increasing their chances of developing insight into their ways of living.

It assists the teacher in covering the course on time and in alleviating problems throughout the teaching and learning process.

Furthermore, it entails planning the content to confirm with specific scopes and sequencing. It entails encouraging students as well as using lesson presentation tactics to maximise teaching and learning benefits.

These instructional resources are classified as follows:

The visual

· Audio

AV (Audio Visual)

i. Visual materials: as the name implies, these are instructional resources that are seen practically. These products make it easier to teach and study in schools and institutions.

Visual materials are those that provide information to the viewer through the sense of sight. As a result, they can be seen and touched. Charts, photographs, pictures, posters, maps, specimen, diagram, coins, ball, black board, and so on are examples.

ii. Audio materials: they are materials that we can see but not touch. These are instructional products that use sound to transmit information. Because of their sound properties, they are referred to as auditory materials.

These materials include radios, records, and players.

Gramophone, drums, whistles, audio cassette and so on

iii. Audio-Visual material: materials that mix auditory and visual features to communicate information. They communicate this way using the ear and eye. Some of them are also classified as multi-media. Films (with sound), television, sound projectors, and so on are examples of this type of assistance.

In addition to these technical , video cassettes of various topics in disciplines taught in schools were recorded and can be replayed for pupils.

1.2 LEARNER ASSESSMENT

Learner analyses learner characteristics that will influence the choice of instructional materials and activities. Learner traits are the product of genetics, personality development, motivation, and environmental adaptability. Most of these characteristics are neither good nor bad, and some students will have a high level of one, while others will have a moderate level or none at all.

Blindness, deafness, and the inability to utilise one's arms or legs are all examples of physiological features that impact learning. Characteristics such as preference for working in well-lit vs dimly lit locations, desire for learning at specific times of day, need for mobility, tactile stimulation, kinesthetic learning, amount of sound in the environment, and the like are also essential.

Motivation is one of the most significant affective traits. Learners are motivated by a range of factors, including whether they prefer to work in groups or alone, whether they prefer written instructions or unstructured tasks.

There are numerous student learning style instruments available. These instruments take into account the following dimensions:

Audio linguistic learning (the learner likes to learn by spoken word)
Visual linguistic (the learner prefers to see words to learn)
Auditory numerical learning (the learner learns easily by hearing numbers and verbal explanations)
Visual numerical (in order to learn, the learner prefers to see numbers)
Combination of audio-visual-kinesthetic (the learner prefers a combination of the three main modalities)
Individual Learner (prefers to work independently)
Group learner (likes to learn with others)
Oral expressive (the learner loves to share information with others by informing them)
Written expressiveness (the learner chooses to share information through writing)
In general, educators should strive to individualise education based on learner traits and oriented to a learner's strengths, while learners should also be encouraged to strengthen of secondary choice.

1.3 INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

The practise of building instructional tools and content to best assist learning is known as instructional design. The process entails determining the learner's current and needs, establishing the end objective of training, and developing some innovation to aid in the transition.

The process should ideally be informed by pedagogically verified learning theories and can take place in student-only, teacher-led, or community-based settings. This instruction's consequence can be directly witnessed and objectively measured, or it can be wholly disguised and presumed.

Instructional design as a field is historically and traditionally anchored on cognitive and behavioural psychology. However, because it is not a regulated, well-understood discipline, the phrase ‘instructional design' has been co-opted by or conflated with a number of other ideologically-based and / or professional fields.

Instructional design, for example, is not the same as graphic design, albeit graphic design (from a cognitive standpoint) may play a part in Instructional Design.

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The goal of this is to find out how much instructional materials are employed in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

Determine some of the most fundamentally influential instincts of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

Access the extent to which students are exposed to the opportunity to utilise instructional materials in the teaching and learning of integrated science.

Analyse the issues associated with the utilisation of instructional materials, as well as the expense of generating these goods.

Determine the technical quality of the instructional materials used in integrated science teaching and learning.

This is done in order to offer essential recommendations based on the research for improving the quality of instructional materials utilised in the teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1.5

This research aims to evaluate the overall usage of instructional resources in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated Science. The following issues will be explored.

üDoes the use of instructional materials improve the effectiveness of integrated science teaching and learning?

üHow do school authorities participate in the provision of instructional resources in schools?

üWhat factors influence the utilisation of these instructional tools in Integrated Science teaching and learning?

Is there a difficulty with the teaching and learning of Integrated Science due to a lack of instructional materials?

üTo what extent do teachers utilise quality and quantity of Instructional Materials in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated Science?

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The necessity for this study arose as a result of poor student performance linked to a lack of standard instructional resources and ineffective utilisation of available instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

Instructional materials guarantee that the teacher provides useful knowledge to his students, allowing them to solve issues and understand concepts.

It has also been shown that the usage of Instructional Materials aids in the clarity of ideas and allows participants of the same class to gain equally from the teaching / learning process. This also helps to pique the pupils' curiosity and pique their desire to study more.

It has also made teaching and learning more immediate by bridging the gap between the outside world and the world within the classroom.

Instructional resources provide chances for learners to develop their abilities and skills, provide a firm foundation for conceptual thinking, and promote information acquisition and retention.

RESEARCH QURSTIONS

The following questions are raised for the sake of research:

1. Are there enough skilled instructors in secondary school to teach and learn integrated science?

2. Do these teachers incorporate instructional materials into their integrated science lessons?

3. To what extent are instructional materials for teaching integrated science available?

HYPOTHESIS 1.7

The following hypotheses are worthy of formulation based on the statement of problems based on the level of usage of instructional resources in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated Science:

Students and teachers use instructional materials appropriately.

vInstructional Materials provide students with numerous opportunities to comprehend and retain knowledge in integrated science.

Some instructional resources utilised in integrated science teaching and learning are of poor quality.

There are not enough instructional materials available to teach and learn integrated science.

1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study focuses on junior secondary schools in Enugu state's Aninri Local Government Area. The scope is also restricted to JssII integrated students in order to determine the extent to which instructional resources are used in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated science.

1.9  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

A study of this scope may have included all of the schools.

However, progress has been restricted by limited resources, such as time and money.

However, generalisation is possible because the sampled schools

have similar characteristics to the other schools in the study areas.

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