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The goal of this study was to create a reinforced concrete design for architecture students utilising the orion tool. The tool, which is a computer programme with a graphical interface, provides fundamental principles for concrete structural calculations and procedures. The graphic interface is intended to assist architecture students in comprehending the design process.



In the design and analysis of reinforced concrete members, you will encounter a problem that most of you are unfamiliar with: “the mechanics of members consisting of two materials.”

To make matters worse, one of the materials (concrete) behaves differently in tension than in compression and can be regarded elastic or inelastic, if not completely ignored.

Although we will face certain unusual elements of concrete members’ behaviour, we will typically be close to a solution for most problems if we can apply the three main ideas:

• Section deformation geometry will be consistent under specific types of loading; for example, a moment will always cause strain to vary linearly with distance from the neutral axis, and so on.

• Material mechanics will allow us to connect stresses to strains.

• Sections will be in equilibrium, which means that external moments will be resisted by internal moments, and external axial load will equal the total of internal axial forces. (Many young engineers are unduly pleased with the speed and seeming precision of modern structural analysis computational processes, and they care less about equilibrium and details).

We will utilise some or all of these concepts to solve the majority of the analysis problems in this course.

The design of reinforced concrete members and structures is a separate but closely connected topic to analysis. It is nearly impossible to precisely analyse a concrete building, and it is even more difficult to precisely design one. Fortunately, we may make a few fundamental assumptions that simplify, if not eliminate, the design of reinforced concrete.

The necessity to specify each member throughout is a difficulty peculiar to the design of reinforced concrete structures. Steel constructions, in general, simply require precise connection design.

In order to ensure acceptable structural performance, we must calculate not only the area of longitudinal and lateral reinforcement necessary in each component, but also the optimal technique to arrange and link the reinforcement. This technique can be made rather simple, if not simple.

The goal of this course is to gain a solid grasp of the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures, then to develop methods utilised in current practise and to become acquainted with the standards and requirements that govern practical design.

In this course, we will learn about the fundamental properties of concrete and steel as structural materials, as well as the behaviour of reinforced concrete members and structures. If we comprehend the fundamental concepts underlying design code provisions, we will be able to:

• Approach the design with greater understanding rather than blindly following a black box; and

• Better understand and adjust to changes in code provisions.

The ultimate goal is to be able to create reinforced concrete structures that are:

• Safe

• Cost-effective

• Effective

Reinforced concrete is a popular building material in engineered structures because:

• Low price

• Fire and weather resistance

• Excellent compressive strength

• Shapeability

All of these factors combine to make concrete an appealing material for a wide range of structural applications such as buildings, dams, reservoirs, tanks, and so on.


One of the most common structural systems is reinforced concrete structures. Many architecture students are designing using reinforced concrete structure systems. However, they frequently create structurally dubious structures since they are attempting to convey their creative ideas with insufficient knowledge of R.C. create.

Frequently, the design of structural members is not their major concern. Although excessive structural concerns may impede their hunt for new solutions, fundamental structural computation is essential for design. Structurally sound solutions can help bring their design ideals to life.

Unfortunately, most architecture schools focus on visual design instruction rather than a balanced design and structure education. Equal class time for structural and design subjects does not constitute a balanced education.

However, pupils must be able to discern if their design has a reasonable structure. Many students consult widely available books on architectural graphic standards for guidance. However, they are not appropriate to a wide range of circumstances.

Furthermore, because reinforced concrete structures are made of concrete and steel, they necessitate several calculations and condition inputs.

The Reinforced Concrete Structure Design (RCSD) programme, created for this thesis, can assist architecture students and users in analysing their designs and understanding structural foundations. Although there are several reinforced concrete structure programmes, the majority of them are aimed at advanced users with a background in structural engineering.

The RCSD programme is intended for novice users, such as architecture undergraduate and graduate students with limited structural expertise. It assists users with this by providing a graphical input method and a step-by-step calculating procedure.

The user can use this programme to create basic structural components such as a slab, beam, column, and footing. The programme is also founded on the American Concrete Institute Code.

The ultimate purpose of this programme is for users to be able to use it to examine their own designs and calculate structural proportions of their design ideas.


Buildings must be designed and built in accordance with the standards of a building code, which is a legal document that contains regulations for structural safety, fire safety, plumbing, ventilation, and accessibility to the physically impaired. A building code is a legal document that is enforced by a governmental organisation such as a city, county,

or, in some large metropolitan regions, a consolidated government. Building regulations do not provide design techniques; instead, they outline the design requirements and constraints that must be met.

The specification of minimal live loads for buildings is critical for structural engineers. While the engineer is urged to research actual loading situations and try to obtain realistic values, the structure must be capable of supporting the stipulated minimum loads.

Although some large cities develop their own building rules, many towns may take a “model” building code and alter it to meet their specific requirements. Various charity organisations create model codes in a format that is easily accepted by a governmental agency.

The BOCA National Building Code, the Uniform Building Code, the Standard Building Code, and the International Building Code (IBC 2012) are among the most widely used. ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,

is a related document that is formatted similarly to a building code. This standard is intended to convey load requirements in a format that a building code can use.

The United States lacks a national code for structural concrete.

• ACI (American Concrete Institute) Code;

• ACI commentary gives context and rationale for code provisions.

• Highway bridges are developed in accordance with “AASHTO” (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials).

• AREA is an acronym for American Railway Engineers Association; this is a railway engineering textbook.


The primary goal of this research is to create a reinforced concrete design utilising the Orion software, which is a structural building software design tool. Other examples include:

1.Create a concrete design with a relatively high compressive strength;

2.Incorporate a higher fire resistance than steel of concrete design;

3.Create a cast that can adopt the desired shape, allowing it to be widely used in precast structural components.

1.4. LOADS

Loads acting on structures can be classified into three types:

Dead Loads (1.4.1)

Dead loads are those that remain constant in magnitude and location over the life of a structure, such as floor fill, finish floor and plastered ceiling for buildings, and wearing surface, walkways and curbing for bridges.

1.4.2 Loads in Motion

The minimum living loads for which the floors and roof of a structure should be designed are normally stated in the building code that prevails at the construction site (see Table).

1 – “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structure.”)

Environmental Loads 1.4.3

Wind, earthquake, and snow loads are examples of environmental loads. wind, earthquake, and snow loads, for example.


Serviceability necessitates

• Deflections must be sufficiently small;

• Any cracks should be maintained to a minimum.

• Vibrations should be kept to a minimum.


A structure must be secure from collapse; its strength must be enough for all loads that may act on it. We would not have to be concerned about safety if we could build buildings as designed, and if the loads and their internal consequences could be precisely predicted. However, there are some uncertainties in:

• The actual loads;

• Forces/loads may be distributed differently than we anticipated.

• The assumptions used in the analysis may not be exact;

• Actual behaviour may differ from that predicted;

Finally, we want the structure to be resistant to brittle failure (a progressive failure with adequate notice allowing for corrective steps is preferable than a rapid or brittle collapse).


There have long been two design principles in use. From the early 1900s to the early 1960s, the working stress approach, which focused on circumstances at service load (that is, when the structure was in use), was the primary method utilised.

With few exceptions, the strength design method is now employed, with a focus on conditions at loads larger than service loads when failure is possible. The strength design method is thought to be more conceptually plausible for establishing structural safety.

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