TOTAL ALKALOIDS, TOTAL TANNINS CONTENT AND ANTIULCER ASSAY OF FOUR SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS
The total alkaloid concentration, tannin content, and antiulcer efficacy of four medicinal plant extracts were studied. The total alkaloids content (TAC) was determined using the chloride colometric technique, with atropine serving as the standard. In addition, the total tannins content (TTC) was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau test with gallic acid as the standard. Using an ethanol-induced paradigm in Wistar albino rats, the antiulcer efficacy of the extracts was evaluated. As markers of the antiulcerogenic action of the extracts, variables such as stomach volume, pH, and ulcer index were employed. The mice were given distilled water (Normal control group), ranitidine 5 mg/kg (standard control group), 0.5 mg/kg of ethanol (Negative control group), and 100,200 and 400 mg/kg of the extracts orally 1 hour prior to oral administration of 100% ethanol to cause gastric mucosal damage. E. deightonii extract has the highest concentration of alkaloids and tannins (0.850 0.001 mg AE/g and 0.133 0.001 mg GAE/g, respectively), whereas A. hispidum and P. staudtii have the lowest concentrations (0.800 0.001 mg AE/g and (0.124 0.001 mg GAE/g). The LD50 for the extract was larger than 5000 mg/kg for E. deightonii, 2154 mg/kg for A. hispidum, 3808 mg/kg for P. stautonii, and 2154 mg/kg for P. lunatus. The extracts at doses of 100, 200, and 400 significantly decreased stomach volume *(P 0.05), although the pH of the gastric juice increased significantly *(P 0.05) in the ethanol-induced model. The extracts inhibited stomach acid by between 16 and 90 percent at most. Due to the presence of secondary metabolites, the methanol extracts of the chosen plants exhibited antiulcer and cytoprotective properties, as shown by the findings.
Plants are divine gifts and humans have exploited them for fundamental preventative and curative healthcare since the beginning of time1. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in public interest in the use of herbs and plants as a result of the discovery of active principles against several illnesses and infections in plant extracts from a range of plants. Some experts see this movement as the current Herbal Renaissance2. Although pharmaceutical firms are shifting towards synthetics and biotechnology research in the 21st century in quest of breakthrough medicines, consumers are becoming more aware of the dangers of utilizing synthetic products3. Consequently, the emphasis is now on the numerous medicinal plants, their potentials, safety, and toxicity levels, if any 4.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a medical plant is any plant that contains chemicals that may be utilized for therapeutic reasons or that serve as precursors for the synthesis of valuable drugs5. In addition, medicinal plants may be seen as herbal preparations generated by submitting plant components to extraction, fractionation, purification, concentration, or other physical or biological processes, which can be prepared for direct use or as the foundation for herbal products6. About 80 percent of the world’s population utilizes medicinal plants to cure sickness, and the percentage is significantly greater in African nations7.
As a result of the country’s high poverty rate, the ordinary Nigerian resident cannot afford the several ulcer-treating synthetic medications that have been developed. Consequently, the reliance on plants and herbal items for the
The treatment of disorders, in particular ulcer. In order to provide a reasonably long-lasting solution to the health care problems, it is imperative that we give critical consideration to some indigenous medicinal plants such as Ancanthospermum hispidum DC, Pachypodanthium stautii Engl & Diels, Phaseolus lunatus, and Euphorbia deightonii Croizot in our region.
1.1 CONTEXT OF THE STUDY
Acanthospermum hispidum (DC), (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant often known as “bristly starburr” or “ewe onitan meta” or “kaashinyaawo” in Western and Northern Nigeria, respectively8. Locally, the leaves are used to cure jaundice, malaria, vomiting, cephalgias, head-ache, abdominal discomfort, convulsion, stomach-ache, constipation, eruptive fever, snake bite, epilepsy, blennorrhea, hepato-binary disease, microbial infection, and viral infection9. Sesquiterpene lactones such as acanthospermal B, acanthospermal B epoxide, hispidunolide A, and B10-14 have been detected in the plant.
In addition, Acanthospermum hispidum contains phytochemicals such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavoniods, tannins, terpenoids, and saponins that may be utilized as an adjuvant in antibiotic, antiviral, antitrypsomal, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antihelmintic formulations15,16. It is also used to treat skin conditions, cough, and bronchitis9, however its antiulcer efficacy has not been documented.
Pachypodanthium staudtii Engl & Diels, (Family Annonaceae) is a mostly southern Nigerian medicinal plant. In Eastern Nigeria, it is known as “Ntoko neto” and is also known as “Pepper tree.” Locally, stem bark and root bark are used in
The treatment of abdominal pain, headache, chest pain, tumors, toothache, bronchitis, and edema17.
This plant contains the following phytochemicals in its leaves, stem, and bark: anthocyanines, anthraquinones, flavoniods, phenols, sterols, triterpenes, saponins18, tannins, and alkaloids.
The plant also has antibacterial properties; it has been shown to be effective against Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa17,18.
The plant’s bioactive constituents include pachypodol, 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, pachypophyllin, pachypostaudins A and B18, pachypodanthine, pachysonto, staudin, sabinene, -elemene, E—caryophylene, -selinene, -bisabolene, -cadinene, and 2,4,5 Despite the relevance of Pachypodanthium stauttii, its antiulcer activity has not been documented.
Phaseolus lunatus (Fabaceae) is a New Globe leguminous plant that has been domesticated in regions approximating to modern-day Peru and Mexico, and is now farmed in many tropical parts of the world, including Nigeria23. It is known as “lima beans” in the United States, and as “Awuje” or “Eree” in Southern and Eastern Nigeria, respectively. Like many other legumes, Phaseolus lunatus is an excellent source of dietary fiber and a nearly fat-free source of high-quality protein. Lima beans contain both soluble and insoluble fiber, which help prevent constipation, digestive disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, and diverticulitis24. Soluble fiber helps regulate blood sugar levels and lowers cholesterol, while insoluble fiber helps prevent constipation, digestive disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, and diverticulitis. The lima bean is a nitrogen-fixing legume that loses its leaves profusely, making it beneficial for replenishing soil fertility. Phytochemicals such as tannins, saponins, oxalate, phytic acid25, and alkaloids are also present. Phaseolus lunatus, like any other
Therefore, leguminous plants are an important source of food for humans and livestock26.
Phaseolus lunatus possesses two indirect defenses that may be induced to defend itself against herbivores. In addition to emitting volatiles, plants exude additional floral nectar to attract carnivorous anthropods to herbivores that harm plants. The activation of both putative mechanisms protects lima beans well against leaf damage27.
Farmers continue to cultivate local cultivars despite the immense potential of this crop, which is underused in the nation and has gotten little attention in terms of agricultural development. The lima bean has not benefited from an intense research effort as have cowpea and soybeans28. Therefore, there is an immediate need to do significant study on the therapeutic characteristics of lima seeds, with a focus on their antiulcer effects.
Euphorbia deightonii Croizot, (Euphorbiaceae Family) is a medicinal plant widely known as “Africa never dies” (because to its capacity to live in every climate) and “oro agogo” in Northern Nigeria. The significance of Euphorbia deightonii Croizot is monumental. For horticultural applications, it is used to create hedges, markers, and decorative flowers29. It is also used in the treatment of leprosy, cutaneous mucosa, female infertility, and as an aphrodisiac30. The plant has huge quantities of white latex, which is thought to be toxic. Its venom is occasionally extracted and used as poison to the edges of arrows, darts, spears, and swords. The phytochemicals included in Euphorbia deightonii Croizot include resin, exudate-gum, steroids30, tannins, and alkaloids. Little effort has been made over the years to use the therapeutic properties of Euphorbia deightonii Croizot. In this view, this investigation was conducted
1.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM.
Globally, medicinal plants have become more important to human health throughout time. In Nigeria, medicinal plants play a significant part in the delivery of health care. Seventy to eighty percent of the population relies on them for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including ulcer31. In order to address the escalating health concerns, it is necessary to verify the efficacy of a selection of medicinal plants. Acanthospermum hispidum, Pachypodanthium stautonii, Phaseolus lunatus, and Euphorbia deightonii are the names of these plants. A variety of pharmacological studies on different portions of the medicinal plants mentioned above have been recorded. However, it is necessary to assess the gastroprotective effect of the chosen medicinal plant extracts in adult Wistar albino rats.
1.3 OBJECTIVES THE OF STUDY.
This research aimed to accomplish the following precise goals:
I. Methanol extraction of the leaves of Acanthospermum hispidum, Pachypodanthium stautonii, Phaseolus lunatus, and Euphorbia deightonii.
Determination of the alkaloid and tannin content of the crude extracts of these medicinal plants.
III. Quantitative analysis of alkaloids and tannins in these medicinal plants’ crude extracts.
Determination of the lethal dosage (LD50) of several medicinal plant extracts in albino Wistar mice.
V. Determination of the antiulcer efficacy of various medicinal plant extracts in adult Wistar albino rats utilizing the ethanol-induced paradigm.
1.4 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY
Due to the finding that plant extracts include not only minerals and primary metabolites, but also a wide variety of secondary metabolites with antioxidant potentials32, the therapeutic value of plants has acquired a significant role during the last several decades.
In underdeveloped nations, notably Nigeria, a significant portion of the population continues to depend on traditional medicine to treat critical conditions such as infections, malignancies, ulcers, and other sorts of inflammations. Due to the heavy reliance on medicinal plants as a significant source of primary health care, it is essential that substantial scientific study be conducted on medicinal plants prevalent in our regions.
Efforts have been made in recent years to develop novel antiulcer medicines derived from natural sources such as plants33. This investigation is necessary to establish the scientific validity of the antiulcer properties of Acanthospermum hispidum leaf, Pachypodanthium stautii stem bark, Phaseolus lunatus seed, and Euphorbia deightonii leaf in adult Wistar albino rats with ethanol-induced ulcers.