This study focuses on the use of biomedical equipment and procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in health institutions. Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in Nigeria and the world at large. Screening for breast cancer has led to reduction in the mortality from the disease however, after effective screening is being done to find out the presence of any tumor in the breast, the next step is to diagnose and find out the stage of the breast cancer which detected calls for treatment. In University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, diagnosis and treatment procedures and equipment is been handled by a physician –a radiology, or a urologist surgeon. The study aims to investigate the use of biomedical equipment and procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. A cross sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire and descriptive statistics were used for summarized the data.The study will also delineate factors that hinder the effective use of these biomedical equipments in carrying out diagnosis and treatment plans and also health hazard therein.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
1.4 Research Hypothesis
1.5 significance of the Study
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.7 Treatment Options
1.8 Recurrence and Survival
1.9 Influence of Delay of Treatment on Survival
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Prevalence and Incidence
2.2 Risk Factors
2.3 Diagnosis and Staging
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Data Collection and Technique
3.6 Discussion of Tendency
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Data Collection
4.2 Data Analysis
4.3 Ethical Consideration
4.4 Data Presentation
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
1.1 Background of the Study
Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of death in women globally. Breast cancer emerges as the condition where more concerned about. Out of a list of comparable conditions, 56% cited breast cancer as one of the top conditions they feared most.
A study of breast cancer awareness in Nigeria should show that only 32% knew that a breast lump was a warning sign. 9.8% knowing their method of detecting cancer and 50% did not know that cancer was curable when detected early in life. This low-level of knowledge of warning signs and detection may be responsible for late presentation, with as many as 64% of patients presentation, with as many as 64presenting 6 months after the onset of symptoms. The disease has been reported to have an early onset among Nigeria women. It is clear that breast cancer is not well understood by women, especially women in the rural areas around the globe and there is a need for information and enlightenment if patients are to present early in hospital. But due to lack of enlightenment and for sensitization, it has been observed that the death rate in cancer patients has increased especially in undeveloped and developing countries. Awareness and knowledge about breast cancer vary among communities and population groups worldwide. While studies conducted to assists breast cancer knowledge among women showed satisfactory level in some places, other reports, especially from developing countries and under developed countries revealed inadequate knowledge and awareness about the disease. Although, patients in communities with high level of awareness usually presents in communities with less advanced stages of breast cancer as a result of adoption of screening methods, those in the communities with low level of awareness often present late.
Early detection and treatment of breast cancer is associated with better chance of long-term survival. In Nigeria, about two third of patients with this disease present with advanced stages when therapy offers minimal benefit.
Report from western Europe and North America revealed reduction in mortality from breast cancer due to adoption or screening methods for detection of early diseases. Breast self-examination (BSE) clinical breast examination, (CBE), ultrasound and mammography are recognized screening methods for breast cancer. However, uptake of these methods by women depends on several factors including the screening diagnosis and treatment attitude of the physician forwards breast cancer patients, level of knowledge of the physician in operating the biomedical equipment’s and devices used in screening, diagnosis and treatment adoption of a higher procedure during screening. In addition, level of knowledge and attitude of healthcare provider toward breast cancer are important determinants of their influence on adoption or the screening method by women in their localities.
After effective screening of breast cancer, the next thing is proper for those who screened positive for the breast cancer, diagnosis is been carried out to make quantitative physiological measurement of the cancer in the breast.
However, this is the stage where the physicians etiquette and ethics in the field of medicine is required because cancer needs to be handled with care because of their frailty pertaining to the human ailments especially cases relating to cancer must have a high knowledge of human psychology.
These are different equipment’s in the radiology department and surgical department in the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital which are mainly on those use for the diagnostic equipment includes the ultrasound machine, the mammogram, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and as stated earlier in the BSE-breast self-examination and/or clinical breast examination. The clinical breast examination is also relatively simple and inexpensive, but its effectiveness in reducing mortality from breast cancer has not been directly tested in a randomized trial. Mammography is complex and expensive, but may pick up tumors long before it can be detected in any other way, thus enhancing better prognosis than those whose cancer is detected in some other ways. (Aldridge, 2015), ultrasound machine which is also known as the tomography is diagnostic imaging device which is based on the application of ultrasound machine. The ultrasound is used to view the internal body structures such as tendons, muscles, point, vessels and any other internal organs. It can be used to find the location of the breast tumor. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not recommended as a routine screening tool for all women.
However, it is recommended for screening women who are at high risk of breast cancer, useful due to a strong family history and/or a mutation in genes such as BRCA1 OR BRCA2. If you are considered high risk, you would have breast MRI in addition to the mammograms. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body; it is a non massive medical condition like the breast cancer. These are some of the diagnostic tools that can be seen in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. These equipments for diagnosis and the procedures is been carried out by a physician called a radiologist or a radiographer who after the diagnostic procedures will delineate treatment methods. The treatment method that uses the biomedical procedures and service is the radiation therapy.
THE USE OF BIOMEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER