In recent years, the prevalence of drug abuse has increased, and experts in the field of drugs and health have warned that if the trend of drug abuse is not reversed, the problems may exacerbate into serious health issues. One unfortunate aspect of this is that teenagers and school-aged children are the most affected by this problem.
To say the least, individuals, governments, and society are all interested in the phenomenon of drug abuse.
A drug is any substance that, when ingested, alters body functions.
A drug is a substance used for medical purposes, either alone or in combination, that alters the function of cells, organs, or organisms. Drugs are mood altering substances that alter an individual’s mood over time. Depending on the individual’s point of view, drug abuse can be defined in a variety of ways.
It could be defined as the continuous and indiscriminate use of both prescribed and illegal drugs, or the use of drugs without a diagnosis or prescription to the point where it jeopardizes one’s health. The self-administration of a quantity or a pattern that impairs an individual’s health, social or economic functioning is our health-oriented definition of drug abuse.
Drug use and abuse or misuse is a phenomenon that has bothered, continues to bother, and will continue to bother humanity for generations to come. Governments, religious organizations, social groups, world bodies, and concerned individuals all over the world are concerned about the indiscriminate and widespread use and abuse of drugs, as well as the implications for individual health status.
Drug abuse is said to be a major social problem that affects people at all socioeconomic levels as well as people of all ages, from adolescents to the elderly.
According to Caliendo (1996), an estimated 9.3-10.3 million US adults, or 7% of the US adult population, are alcoholics or problem drinkers among teens and youth aged 14-17 years old, accounting for 19% of American youths.
Alcohol consumption is at an all-time high.
According to Caliendo (1976), based on data obtained from the USDH. Food balance sheet, the average annual consumption of obsolete alcohol from beer, wine, and spirit among the drinking age America public is 2.6 gallons per individual. This amount of alcohol has a caloric value of about 210 calories per son per day. Individuals consume alcohol at different rates.
Many people do not consume any alcohol, while others consume far more than the average. However, it is estimated that adult females in the United States obtain 10% of their RDA calories from alcohol, while males obtain 7.5 percent.
This is a worldwide trend.
THE HISTORY OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE
The African society is drug-addicted. We consume drugs on a daily basis as we consume food in the form of herds, stems, roots, crops, and cereal beverages. Ideally, we would use drugs in either of these forms, or in refined forms, for both preventive and curative purposes.
For a variety of ailments and diseases. Drugs are used on a daily basis in traditional African society, which dates back before recorded history, for various cultural and religious purposes such as birth, death, marriage, and divorce rites.
Others are initiations into various groups, as well as god appeasement. In the conclusion of agreements for the purchase and sale of lands and landed property, apprenticeship agreements for the teaching and learning of crafts, and so on.
As a result, the use of drugs, in various forms and for various purposes, pervades every aspect of our traditional society and culture. Most of these drugs, in their unrefined forms, grow abundantly in our environment, making them easily accessible to users. Without fear of contradiction, one can assert that the history of drug abuse and misuse is as old as society or man himself.
The arrival of the “white men” on the African continent added even more harmful drugs to the ones we already had, making the environment for drug use and abuse more inviting through easy availability and preference.
DRUGS’ EFFECTS AND ADDICTION
Drugs, according to Agwubike (1998), are chemical agents that affect living cells and are used in modern medicine to treat illness and disease.
Drug abuse has serious health consequences. The number and severity of problems associated with non-medical drug use are incalculable. Alcoholism, for example, is one of the most common causes of adult malnutrition. Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the primary factors associated with the development of cirrhosis of the lever, which is the ninth leading killer disease in the United States population, according to Caliendo (1966).
According to Villabi et al. (1991), Spain ranks second to France in international comparisons of alcohol consumption, with 52 percent of adults drinking daily, and mortality due to liver cirrhosis ranking sixth in terms of death rates and potential years of life lost.
In addition to the liver and nutritional issues, Caliendo (1976) claims that “Alcohol-related deaths may reach as many as 205, 000 annually in the United States.” It has also been linked to a number of health issues, including heart failure, high blood pressure, loss of appetite, and inflammation of the stomach/pancreas/intestines, which leads to nutrient matabsorption.
Another serious consequence of alcoholism is the impact it has on the offspring of a pregnant drinker. It is estimated that more than 44 percent of children born to alcoholic mothers have an IQ of less than 80, as well as significantly higher rates of heart and joint abnormalities.
When measured in terms of man-hours lost due to drug-related problems, it costs the government billions of dollars. This has an impact on our output by lowering productivity.
According to Caliendo (1976), in 1975, alcohol abuse cost the United States nearly $43 billion.
According to Agwubike (1998), a drug has negative effects on the body’s organs and systems, such as damaging the liver or kidneys or negatively affecting the central nervous system. In some cases, death may occur. It is also stated in his book that drug users spend a lot of money producing drugs for themselves.
COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS
Amphetamines are a type of amphetamine.
2. Steroids for anabolic purposes
Marijuana is a third option.
Cocaine is number four.
6. Caffeine and other substances with excitatory or inhibitory effects that are thought to improve athletic performance by delaying the onset of fatigue or hastening recovery rate.
Given the negative impact of drug abuse on the private and public health of society, there is a need to prevent and control drug abuse. To accomplish this, government, religious, and other concerned organizations must work together and simultaneously.
Drug education and re-education are required.
This education should target the drug-using population, particularly adolescents in secondary and tertiary institutions. The goals should be to provide them with useful information on the short-term effects of drug use and abuse, particularly drugs that cause dependence.
This is necessary because the majority of drug users do so due to a lack of knowledge in the area of using the mass media, schools, and other educational means to spread drug education. There should also be drug adult education to educate parents, who will then continue to teach their children at home about the importance of avoiding drug abuse or using drugs correctly.
The World Health Organization (WHO), through its appropriate agencies, should increase its efforts in terms of education as well as funding for rehabilitation and other activities that discourage drug use and misuse.
QUESTION FOR RESEARCH
i. What are the factors that contribute to drug addiction?
iii. What types of drugs are commonly abused?
iv. What are the consequences of drug abuse?
This study was conducted with the following goals in mind:
THE STUDY’S IMPORTANCE
involvement with drugs
When secondary students are made aware of the consequences of drug use, the climate during competition games will undoubtedly improve.
Deviancy and delinquency are at a minimum in school and society at large.
It will pave the way for them to live a meaningful or drug-free life.
Drug: Any substance that, when ingested by a living organism, alters one or more of its functions.
Drug dependence: A psychological and, at times, physical state caused by the interaction of a living organism and a drug, characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effects and, at times, to avoid the discomfort of its absence.
DRUGS DEPENDENCE PRODUCING
A drug that can interact with a living organism to produce a state of
Dependence can be psychic, physical, or both.
DRUGS OTHER THAN FOR MEDICAL PURPOSE
Other than when medically indicated, the use of dependence-producing drugs.
Drug abuse is defined as the continuous and indiscriminate use of both prescribed and non-prescribed legal drugs to the point of impairment.
Legal drugs: These are drugs that are legally permitted for use in the United States.
Illegal drugs: These are drugs that have been approved by a physician for use by the patient.