1.1 Background to the Study
HIV/AIDs Global situation and strands: Since the beginning of the epidemic, 75 million people have been infected with the HIV.Gerettic, ed. (2006). Globally, 37.9 million (32.7-44.0 million) people were living with HIV at the end of 2018. An estimated 0.8% (0.6-0.9%) of adults age 15-49 years World Wide are living with HIV, although the burden of the epidemic continues to vary considerably between countries and regions.Folkers GK (Jully 2012). The WHO African region remains most severely affected, with nearly I in very 25 adults (3.9%) living with HIV and accounting for more than two-thirds of the people living with HIV World Wide.MCNeil, Donald (2014).
Nigeria has the second largest HIV epidemic in the world.Folkers GK (Jully 2012). Although HIV prevalence among adults is much less (1.5%) than other sub-Saharan African countries such as South Africa (20.4%) and Zambia (11.3%), the size of Nigeria’s population means 1.9 million people were living with HIV in 2018.Geretti, ed. (2016).
Recent drops in prevalence estimates for the country has been attributed to better surveillance. Nevertheless, UNAIDS estimates that around two-third of new HIV infections in West and Central Africa in 2007 occur in Nigeria. Moore RD, Chaisson RE (Oct. 1999).Together with South Africa and Uganda, the country accounts for around half of all new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa every year. This is despite achieving a 5% reduction in new infections between 2010 and 2017.%eeks SG, Lewin SR, (Nov. 2013).
Unprotected heterosexual sex accounts for 50% of new HIV infections in Nigeria, with the majority of remaining HIV infection occurring in key affected populations such as sex workers.Folkers GK, (Jully 2012).
Six states in Nigeria account for 41% of people living with HIV, including Kaduna, AkwaIbom, Benue, Lagos, Oyo and Kano. HIV prevalence is lighest in Nigeria’s Southern State (Known as the SouthSouthZone), and Stands at 5.5%. It is lowest in the south east (the South East Zone) where there is a prevalence of 1.8%.
There are highest rate of HIV in rural areas (4%) than in urban areas (3%).
Approximately 150,000 people died from AIDs related illnesses in Nigeria in 2017. Since 2005, the reduction in the number of annual AIDs related deaths has been nominal, indicative of the fact that only 33% o1f those with a positive diagnosis in Nigeria are accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART).Dieffenbach CW, (Feb. 2019).
1.2 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
This study became necessary because HIV is a complicated disease condition that usually leads to vital organs damage and eventually result in death in most persons infected if not diagnose early and properly manage. Every year, it is estimated that approximately 150,000 people died from AIDs related illnesses in Nigeria. Globally, it is estimated 37.9 million (32.7-44million) people were living with HIV at the end of 2018. An estimated 0.8% (0.6-0.9%) of adults age 15-49 years world wide are living with HIV. Folkers GK, (Jully 2012).
Hence, this study is essential as it would not only create awareness but also provide the basis for appropriate orientation, health education and therapeutic intervention.
Also, the result of this study would provide statistics from this Teaching Hospital and serve as a background for further research and policy making.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Human immuno- deficiency Virus (HIV) is a major health problem. HIV has been isolated from a number of body fluids, including blood, semen, vaginal secretions, salvia, breast milk, tears, urine, peritoneal fluids and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). However, not all of these are important in the spread of infection. Infection with HIV occurs through three primary modes: sexual, parenteral and perinatal. This research is geared at determining the prevalence of HIV/AIDs among people within Uyo, in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital from 2014 through 2018.
1.4 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of this research is to evaluate the prevalence of HIV/AIDs in Uyo, fromAkwaIbomState 2014 to 2018 using University of Uyo Teaching Hospital as a case study.
1.4.1 ACHIEVEMENT OF THE AIM OF THE STUDY
This aim was achieved through a careful review of records of HIV/AIDS patient records at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital.
THE PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS IN UYO, FROM AKWA IBOM STATE IN 2014 TO 2018, A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF UYO TEACHING HOSPITAL
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