THE INFLUENCE OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES ON STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The study looked at the impact of school facilities on students' academic performance in government secondary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study used a descriptive survey research design, and 628 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the total population of 2093, but only 600 were correctly filled and returned, consisting of 24 principals and 576 teachers. In Government secondary schools, the instrument is known as the School Facilities on Students Academic Performance Questionnaire (SFSAPQ). In
Local government area of Orumba Data from respondents was gathered using a questionnaire. This instrument was validated and pilot tested, yielding a reliability index of 0.85. The collected data was analyzed using the t-test at the 0.05 level of significance. The study's findings revealed, among other things, that there is no significant difference in teachers' and principals' opinions on the impact of teaching facilities on students' academic performance in Government secondary schools in Orumba local government area in Anambra State.
Furthermore, the findings show that there is no significant difference in respondents' perspectives on the impact of welfare/health facilities on students' academic performance in secondary schools in Anambra State's Orumba local government area. Based on the findings, it was concluded that school facilities continue to be an important factor in achieving secondary education goals.
The researcher suggested that the government and school administrators make an effort to provide teaching and learning facilities such as chairs, tables, laboratories, computers/ICT, and classrooms in government secondary schools in the Orumba local government area of Anambra State, Nigeria.
1.1 The Study's Background
An effective school facility responds to changing educational delivery programs and, at the very least, provides a physical environment that is comfortable, safe, secure, accessible, well-lit, well-ventilated, and aesthetically pleasing. The school building includes not only the physical structure but also a number of building systems such as mechanical, plumbing, electrical and power, telecommunications, security, and fire suppression systems.
Additionally, the facility includes furnishings, materials and supplies, equipment and information technology, as well as various aspects of the building grounds, such as athletic fields, playgrounds, outdoor learning areas, and vehicular access and parking. In recent years, the public and educators have paid close attention to the issue of school facilities.
According to Building Educational Success Together (BEST, 2005), every administrator is responsible for ensuring that every child has access to quality education in school facilities that provide an educational setting that is conducive to teaching and learning. Furthermore, the implementation of educational policies that resulted in high quality, high performance, and well-designed and maintained school facilities had a direct and indirect impact on the teaching and learning process (BEST, 2005).
As a result, effective facility management contributes to the success of every student in any school. According to Hale (2002), students in classrooms with large windows, natural lighting, and well-designed skylights perform 19 to 25 percent better than their peers in classrooms without these features. As observed by (Hunter, 2006), environmental conditions in schools affect not only students but also staff.
These conditions include an inoperative heating system, inadequate ventilation, and a poor lighting system. The overall building condition, the age of the building, the windows, and the instructional areas were all positively related to students' learning achievement (Bullock, 2007).
It is clear from their contributions (Broome, 2005; Hughes, 2005; Lyons, 2001) that students' achievement is affected by the physical school facility, its age, design, and condition. School facilities played an important role in directing the task of teaching and shaping students' learning processes both inside and outside of school. Without a doubt, school construction as a tool for instituting an effective teaching and learning process required a significant investment of public funds in its development and maintenance by administrators.
Most of the school facilities that are supposed to promote and enhance teaching, learning, and extra-curricular activities in secondary education are now absolute, posing serious challenges to the learners' educational needs in the twenty-first century.
Others are dilapidated and unfit to inspire secondary students to learn. School/educational facilities are also known as school buildings. The physical facilities provided by the school, such as the school site, buildings, and equipment, are referred to as school facilities. In any industrial setting, these facilities are analogous to capital.
Understanding the national goal of developing the educational system in order to provide a sufficient flow of men and women capable of acquiring the skills required to fully exploit the country's natural resources makes it imperative for facilities to be abundantly available in schools. Buildings are required to house staff and students, and sports/games facilities are required to help students develop their mental, social, and physical abilities.
The school land and all of the physical structures on it comprise the school facilities. It refers to the school building, the playground, the equipment, and other material resources available in the school to support effective teaching and learning operations (Onuorah,2004). The school facilities are the physical manifestation of the school curriculum (Mgbodile,1986).
Similarly, Ani (1997) defined school facilities as “the fixed and mobile structure and materials in the school such as the classroom buildings, laboratory equipment, furniture, chalkboard, audio and visual aids.” All facilities and equipment within the school that are used by members of the school community are referred to as school facilities (Abraham, 2003).
It was stated that regardless of the system's manpower resources, educational processes must require conducive physical accommodation, libraries, furniture, and playgrounds (Nwaogu,1985). When these instructional facilities are lacking, it can have a negative impact on teacher productivity. Learning occurs more effectively and quickly in a school environment with high-quality buildings, accommodations, furniture, and equipment than in an environment lacking all of these elements.
In their recognition of the need for a well-equipped school, Adesina and Ogunsanji (1984) stated that for effective teaching and learning situations, physical facilities and educational goals should be viewed as being closely interwoven and inter-dependent. Aside from shielding students from the sun, rain, heat, and cold, the school building represents a learning environment that has a significant impact on the students.
As a result, well-planned and organized school facilities are required to facilitate this high level of teaching and learning. A conducive teaching and learning environment is critical to the quality of teachers engaged in instilling desired characteristics in students.
In order for teaching and learning to be effective, the school building and its surroundings must be free of threats, hostility, and frustration. To enhance learning, he suggested that the following materials be made available to teachers: textbooks, programmed materials and devices, newspaper and magazines, and other library material, pictures, slides, film strips, maps, globes, charts, motion pictures, radio, television, chalkboards and chalks, specimens to concretize ideas and stimulate imagination.
1.2 THE PROBLEM'S STATEMENT
The school facilities must be in good condition for any school to function effectively. As a result, the general public has expressed concern about the lack of school facilities in Orumba schools. The condition of the school's facilities is a major criterion for many parents when choosing a school for their children. Despite this concern and demand for change, it appears that physical facility management in Anambra state schools leaves much to be desired.
It is not uncommon these days to find some classrooms with potholes on the floor comparable to road scenes. Children have little room to sit or move around. In hot weather, classrooms become extremely hot due to a lack of ceilings. Some structures have sagging roofs.
When facilities are not maintained, they pose a health risk to those who use them. Teachers cannot function effectively without adequate facilities. Students' academic performance will suffer; the school's tone will be at an all-time low; and human and material resources will be depleted.
The study investigated such activities in school because the importance of school facilities to the attainment of educational objectives is undeniable, and because it is in a very deplorable condition in Orumba local government area, a change for the better cannot be overstated. The impact of school facilities on students' academic performance in government secondary schools in the Orumba local government area is thus the study's problem.
1.3 THE STUDY'S OBJECTIVES
examine the impact of learning facilities on students' academic performance in government secondary schools in Orumba local government area; investigate the impact of health facilities on students' academic performance in government secondary schools in Orumba local government area
Determine the impact of sports facilities on students' academic performance in government secondary schools in the Orumba Educational zone, as well as the impact of recreational facilities on students' academic performance in public secondary schools in the Orumba local government area.
1.4 QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
To guide this study, the following research questions were developed.
What effect do teaching facilities have on students' academic performance in Orumba's public secondary school?
How do learning facilities influence students' academic performance in government secondary schools in the Orumba local government area?
What effect do health facilities have on academic performance in government secondary schools in the Orumba local government area?
Do sports facilities affect students' academic performance in government secondary schools in the Orumba local government area?
What effect do recreational facilities have on student performance in Orumba local government area public secondary schools?
1.5 THEORIES OF RESEARCH
The following null hypotheses were developed for this study and tested at the 0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in principals' and teachers' perspectives on the impact of teaching facilities on students' academic performance in secondary schools in the Orumba local government area.
Ho2: There is no statistically significant difference in respondents' views on the impact of learning facilities on academic performance of students in secondary schools in the Orumba local government area.
Ho3 Respondents' perspectives on the impact of health facilities on students' academic performance in secondary schools in Orumba local government area are not significantly different.
Ho4: There is no statistically significant difference in respondents' views on the impact of sports facilities on student academic performance in secondary schools in the Orumba local government area.
Ho5: There is no statistically significant difference in respondents' perceptions of the impact of recreational facilities on students' academic performance in secondary schools in the Orumba local government area.
1.7IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
Policymakers will be well-equipped with reliable and factual information that will serve as an input for effective law making on issues such as funding allocation, timely release period, and the legal framework guiding its implementation.
1.8 STUDY OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of school facilities on students' academic performance in government secondary schools in the Orumba educational zone. In doing so, the research is narrowed to public secondary schools to allow the researcher to minimize the cost of covering a large area as an individual researcher, and to allow the researcher to conduct a meaningful study in the shortest amount of time allowed for this Program of study.
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THE INFLUENCE OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES ON STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS