Project Materials






Organizations are legally and morally obligated to provide employees with safe and healthy working conditions and to ensure their overall well-being. The provision of any health and safety program varies based on the organization’s location, size, the nature of the work being performed, and the types of personnel. As working partners and members of the organization’s community, organizations rely on their employees. By reducing the incidence and severity of occupational accidents, diseases, workplace violence, and stress-related sickness, as well as by enhancing the quality of their employees’ work, companies become much more effective. In order to determine the effects of workplace safety and health programs on employee performance at Ghana Power and Lighting Company, this study utilized a descriptive research design informed by a survey in which data was collected from the entire population through the use of primary sources. For data collection, a standardized questionnaire was utilized. A five-point Likert scale was utilized to measure the extent to which certain applications are utilized by business departments. To present and analyze the data collected by the researcher through the use of questionnaires in determining the facts to support the problem statement, the researcher analyzed and reported the information using pie charts, bar graphs, percentages, continuous prose, and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Utilizing regression analysis, the effects of occupational safety and health on employee performance were determined. The study determined that occupational safety and health programs at Ghana Power Company have a favorable correlation with employee performance. The results also suggest a high correlation between health and safety measures and employee productivity. The study suggests that health and safety programs enhance employee performance. Companies are advised to connect their workplace safety policies with their business strategy.




1.1 Background of the Study

Occupational safety and health is the study of preventing work-related injuries and illnesses, as well as protecting and promoting the health of workers. It strives to improve working conditions and the surrounding environment. Occupational health comprises the promotion and maintenance of the best possible level of physical and mental health and social well-being among all workers (Taderera, 2012). Occupational Safety and Health has recently become a much higher priority in light of the growing evidence of significant loss and suffering caused by occupational diseases and ill-health in a variety of employment sectors, and is of concern to managers at least in part due to the rising number of workplace deaths and accidents. Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is a complicated field that interacts extensively with a broad range of business concerns and interests. Human Resource Management (HRM) has neglected OHS’s function, effect, and significance to date (Cassio, 2004).

The research was based on the Goal-Freedom Alertness Theory developed by Kerr (1954) and the Distractions Theory developed by Hinze (1980). (1997). According to the Goal-Freedom Alertness Theory, safe job performance is the outcome of a psychologically satisfying work environment, as workers will be safe in a good work environment if managers and supervisors actively endeavor to eliminate workplace risks, diseases, and accidents. According to the Distractions Theory, safety and health are situational and comprise two components. The first component addresses dangers provided by unsafe physical conditions, while the second addresses worker preoccupation with matters unrelated to the task at hand. The study was conducted at Ghana Power Corporation because the company failed to implement necessary health and safety measures in the workplace to protect not only its personnel and management, but also its customers and other interested parties.

Naidoo & Willis (2002) cite a number of benefits to the company from the promotion of health and safety in the workplace, including increases in productivity as a result of fewer sick days, an improved corporate image, and lower employee turnover. Safety precautions minimize accidents and promote a steady flow of labor, thereby boosting worker morale and productivity. It also contributes to employee teamwork and a sense of belonging. Boyd (2003), on the other hand, contends that as employee performance improves, it leads to increased organization effectiveness. Among the benefits of safe and healthy workplaces are increased productivity due to fewer lost workdays, increased efficiency and quality from a healthier workforce, decreased medical and insurance costs, lower workers’ compensation rates and direct payments due to fewer claims, and an enhanced reputation. According to McCunney (2001), the most significant effect of occupational health and safety on productivity is a reduction in absenteeism.

Today’s firms have the task of engaging the hearts and minds of every employee. In today’s work environment, occupational exposures versus ergonomic, physiological, and psychological aspects are present. Individually or in complicated combinations, these variables endanger the safety and health of workers and impair their happiness and productivity (Health and Safety Executive, 2008). The World Health Organization (2013) estimates that each year there are about 160 million new instances of occupational diseases. According to the International Labour Organization, 2,2 million employees die annually as a result of occupational disease and injury; 350 thousand of these deaths are due to accidents, while the remaining deaths are due to occupational illness and accidents. In addition, the International Labour Organization estimates that 264 million nonfatal accidents result in more than three (3) days of missed work per year, and 160 million individuals suffer from occupational diseases. The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that 4% of the world’s annual GDP is lost due to occupational sickness and accidents (ILO, 2013). In the past year, little more than three (3) million American workers sustained occupational injuries and illnesses due to mishaps on the job. This data corresponds to an incidence rate of 3,3 cases per 100 full-time workers (Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2013). It is estimated that 2 million persons in the United Kingdom suffer from a condition believed to be caused or exacerbated by their present or previous employment. In the important areas of injuries, fatalities, and self-reported work-related ill-health, the United Kingdom outperforms numerous other European nations, including Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and Poland (British Safety Council, 2014).

In Africa, the majority of countries and organizations have ignored occupational health and safety practices. According to the International Labour Organization, 63,900 workers died on the job in 54 African nations, while an estimated 1,560,000 suffered disabling injuries (ILO, 2010). The basic reason why the majority of African nations and companies struggle to establish a successful occupational health and safety workplace is that the majority of employers prioritize productivity and profitability over health and safety standards, procedures, policies, and programs. Employers, the government, managers, industrialists, employees, and other stakeholders in Ghana are becoming increasingly concerned about the workplace safety and health situation/conditions. In recent years, managers, employers, employees, trade unions, employers’ groups, and other stakeholders have not increased their attention on health and safety (Nyakang’o, 2009). Given the foregoing knowledge and the fact that the production of every business is somewhat dependent on the health of its employees, an appreciation of the notion of occupational health and safety is essential to the success of any organization.

Concept of Occupational Safety and Health

Occupational health and safety is a multidisciplinary field concerned with ensuring the safety, health, and welfare of individuals engaged in employment or work. All occupational health and safety programs are intended to promote a safe workplace (Amazon, 2006). Occupational health is concerned with the gradual degradation of a worker’s health as a result of poor health caused by working conditions and/or surroundings. However, occupational safety is concerned with the avoidance of accidents and the minimization of work environment factors that have the potential to cause employees immediate violent harm (Armstrong, 2012).

According to Mejia (2010), occupational safety and health is a vast field that encompasses both physical and mental health. In order to effectively manage workplace safety and health, it is necessary to do much more than reduce the number of workplace incidents and injuries. Health and safety is a positive term that encompasses social and personal assets in addition to physical capacities (Nutbeam, 1990). It has been described as the capacity to set and attain objectives, meet personal needs, and deal with daily challenges (Raphael, Brown, Renwick & Rootman, 1997).

Safety and health programs focus as much as possible on ensuring that the individual is suited to the job and that work is performed in a safe atmosphere (Graham and Bennet, 1995).

According to Jackson et al. (2009), occupational safety and health refers to the physiological – physical and psychological conditions of a workplace that come from the organization’s work environment. Physiological-physical issues include diseases and accidents such as death, injuries caused by repeated motion, back discomfort, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Psychological disorders include signs of poor mental health and job burnout, such as apathy, emotional tiredness, withdrawal, uncertainty over roles and responsibilities, suspicion of others, inattention, impatience, and an inclination to become distressed over trivial matters.

These illnesses are frequently the result of occupational stress and a poor quality of work life.

Occupational Safety and Health Programs

Occupational safety and health programs include actions or activities performed by the organization to reduce unsafe working conditions and unsafe behavior. Employers’ first line of defense in accident prevention is constantly reducing dangerous conditions (Hopkin, 2010). In establishing safe and healthy work environments, he adds, businesses must pay special attention to workers who are susceptible owing to lack of information, inadequate personal protective equipment, physical restrictions, or cultural factors.

The accomplishment of a healthy and safe workplace and the elimination of as many potential dangers to health and safety as feasible are the responsibility of all employees and contractors of an organization. The occupational safety and health initiatives are intended to reduce the incidence of work-related illnesses and accidents (Armstrong, 2012). Designing and implementing intervention programs is more difficult for organizations/companies with no global operations since monitoring progress is more complex. Related to this difficulty and obligation of Human resource professionals and organizations in handling the situations caused by significant diseases, epidemics, and natural catastrophes. Due of the severity of the effects of diseases and natural catastrophes, companies must be proactive in managing their occurrence (Stewart and McGoldrick, 1996).

Dessler (2008), on the other hand, maintains that a healthy and safe working environment is not a given; it must be produced. The firms with the best safety reputation have implemented comprehensive health and safety programs. Managers and then supervisors should be the first in the organization to prioritize safety. If a business adopts adequate safety and health precautions, fewer of its employees will have short-term or long-term adverse impacts as a result of their employment. According to Nzuve (2009), organizations rely on employees as coworkers and members of the organization’s community. The attainment of a healthy and safe workplace and the elimination of as many potential risks as possible inside a company and its subcontractors. By reducing the incidence and severity of occupational accidents, diseases, workplace violence, and stress-related sickness, as well as by enhancing the quality of their employees’ work, companies become much more effective.

Organizations invest in health and safety initiatives for humanitarian as well as cost-controlling reasons, dating back to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations.

Health Act for noncompliance with health insurance premiums and nonproductive labor payments. They also benefit from having healthy personnel, as some have been ready to invest in wellness programs and facilities for this purpose (Miner and Crane, 1995). There are numerous ways to improve workplace safety and health. Programs designed to prevent accidents and injuries, diseases, and enhance employees’ stress management and overall health are among the most prevalent. While some of the interventions aim to alter the employees’ lives and non-work behaviors, others aim to improve the employees’ productivity. All of these initiatives can lower the numerous expenses related to employee injuries, illnesses, and deaths (Werner) (2009).

Employee Performance

Employee Performance is a record of the results obtained through the execution of specific tasks or activities over a specific time period. It is a set of behaviors that are pertinent to the organization’s or organizational unit’s aims (Bernandin & Russell, 2009). According to Armstrong (2010), employee performance is the process of building a shared workforce understanding of the organizational goals. It entails connecting company goals with the agreed-upon metrics, skills, competency standards, growth plans, and results of the employees. In this era of global competitiveness, many businesses are attempting to construct a high performance work culture that incorporates both business and corporate strategies in order to enhance the contribution of the employee to the organization’s success. In recent years, some organizations have endeavored to establish a ‘performance culture’, which is comprised of several tactics designed to enhance the contribution of individuals to the organization’s overall success. Typically, the human resources department is responsible for safeguarding the health and safety of employees, resulting in excellent productivity (Armstrong, 2007; Boxal and Purcell, 2008; Fletcher and Williams, 1996).

Armstrong (2012) asserts that the objective of managers is to develop a high-performance culture in which individuals and teams are accountable for the ongoing improvement of business processes and for their own abilities and contributions within a framework of successful leadership. The majority of the world’s leading firms are understanding that business and work activities can no longer disregard health and safety considerations. According to (Gilley et al., 2003), an organization-wide approach to performance improvement is required, with workplace health and safety constituting essential parts of employee performance. It is impossible to pursue increased worker productivity in a vacuum. The benefits of maintaining a safe workplace must not outweigh the costs of occupational safety and health initiatives.

According to (Pritchard, 1990), it is necessary to measure productivity in order to increase it, as productivity improvement is crucial for each individual business. Effective managers and supervisors recognize that they must play an active and constructive role in employee performance to guarantee that objectives are fulfilled. Performance management is one method of empowering people. To provide the business and its people with the potential to achieve high performance, managers and employees must have a comprehensive understanding of workplace safety, including both what they are expected to do and how they should do it. Effective managers produce preconditions that serve two purposes: they facilitate performance and motivate individuals to perform (Zeithmal, 2002). Employee performance reviews guarantee that employees are focused on their duties and working toward achieving the organization’s overarching objectives and mission statement (Aldag, 2004).

1.2 Research Problem

Health at work and healthy work environments are among the most prized possessions of individuals, communities, businesses, and nations. Occupational safety and health is an essential approach not only for ensuring the health and safety of workers, but also for contributing positively to productivity, quality of goods, work motivation, job satisfaction, and thus to the general quality of life of individuals and society (WHO, 1994). Almost every employee in a company is affected by occupational safety and health, for better or for worse. As they are exposed to potentially hazardous equipment, machines, tools, or chemicals in the workplace, employees are exposed to a number of health and safety dangers. Due to increased social and public pressure and rising customer expectations, businesses are expected to exceed legal standards and act more responsibly. Creating healthy environments for employees and preventing illness and disease is one method for businesses to meet these increased demands while also enhancing their productivity and competitiveness (Torrington, 2008).

Ghana Power Company has developed occupational safety and health rules, standards, and programs that are implemented and administered uniformly to all personnel. In addition to its dedication to quality and achievement in the energy sector, the company awards a motivator kitty to its top-performing workers and divisions. The occupational safety and health program of Ghana Power Company is intended to acknowledge employee performance. Nonetheless, according to the 2013 statutory safety and health audit report, work-related accidents, illnesses, and injuries have grown by 20 to 30 percent, particularly among technical professionals, and there are obstacles to the implementation of occupational safety and health programs. As health care costs have continued to rise, a conflict has arisen between the company’s need for increased output and efficiency and the employees’ need for protection from workplace hazards and accidents. Absenteeism for health reasons was also noted in the audit report as one of the several factors that frequently disturbs the performance of individual employees, as sick or injured workers are likely to perform poorly if they attempt to work.

Several studies have examined the relationship between employee performance and workplace health and safety. Badekale (2012) conducted descriptive research in the form of a survey on the effects of organizational health and safety regulations on employee performance in Larfage (WAPCO) Ewekoro, Ogun State, Nigeria, and found that a healthy employee is a productive employee. Successful health and safety programs face a number of challenges, including a lack of strong safety practices and rising health care expenditures, according to the report. Abuga (2012) conducted a case study at the Pyrethrum Board of Ghana to determine the impact of occupational safety and health programs on the effectiveness of the organization. According to his conclusions, employees must participate in the formulation of occupational safety and health initiatives. Additionally, Indakwa (2013) conducted a cross-sectional study on the perceived impact of occupational health and safety practices on job satisfaction among sugar industry employees. The research determined that occupational health and safety impact job satisfaction, and the study’s findings confirmed that occupational health and safety impact job satisfaction. In contrast, Mberia (2007) also performed a survey aimed at determining the occupational health and safety programs employed by Ghanaian banks. The study revealed that banks are extremely concerned with physical and mechanical hazards that affect their employees. Jelimo (2013) conducted a descriptive study on the relationship between occupational health and safety practices and employee output. The study concludes that occupational safety and health practices have a favorable correlation with employee productivity.

In a nutshell, all of these studies have examined the effects of occupational safety and health practices, strategies, and compliance on the performance/productivity of the organization, and their findings indicate that occupational health and safety improves organizational performance. However, none of the conducted research have shown or established a link between occupational safety and health and employee performance, particularly in the energy sector. From this knowledge, the study tries to answer the following question: What is the relationship between occupational safety and health initiatives and employee performance at Ghana Power? What effect does Ghana Power Company’s occupational safety and health program have on employee performance?

1.3 The Objective of the Study

The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of Ghana Power Company’s occupational safety and health programs on employee performance.

The study sought to determine the following:

Examine the impact of occupational health and safety on the company’s service delivery.
Determine whether the hospital’s health and safety measures are deficient.
Examine the responsibilities of employees and employers in the hospital’s health and safety program implementation.
Assess the extent of employer and employee compliance with occupational health and safety practices.



What are the signs that hospital managers and supervisors truly care about patient health and safety?
What are the employer and employee obligations and rights for an effective occupational health and safety policy?
Existing hospital occupational health and safety policies sufficient?
What are the consequences if hospital employees violate occupational health and safety regulations?

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study’s findings will assist management and employees to identify the various occupational safety and health programs, thereby providing pertinent information on how to improve employee work performance by boosting safety and health standards on the workplace. Other researchers will benefit from this study because they can use it as a guide when doing a comparable study on the effect of occupational health and safety initiatives on employee performance. It will assist them in identifying the gap left by the researcher as a result of conducting this investigation.

The findings will be beneficial for policymakers, practitioners, and implementers, who can use the results of the study to identify occupational safety and health program gaps and implement solutions. This would aid in enhancing performance and minimizing incidents and labor

associated disease

Academicians/scholars will also benefit from the study, as it will add to the existing body of knowledge by stimulating new areas of research with its findings and recommendations. The study will provide the Ghanaian government with an understanding of how to review, design, develop, and implement new occupational safety and health laws. Also ensuring that all employers and organizations adhere to the new OSHA law in order to decrease work-related accidents, injuries, and infections.

1.6 Limitations of The Study

The majority of hospital personnel have irregular or unfavorable work schedules. This made conducting interviews extremely challenging.

In the course of the research, the researcher had to spend a significant amount of money on printing the research work, duplicating key research materials, paying research assistants, and traveling to the site to collect information.

The responders’ unwillingness to divulge information out of concern that it would be leaked to the outside world and used against the institution was an additional constraint.

Time constraint – In such a study project, time is of the essence. Each element of this research had to be provided within a specific timeframe. However, the researcher was required to mix the exercise with other academic obligations. Again, because the research period is too short to allow for appropriate data gathering on the topic, this could impact the conclusion of the project.

1.7 Organization of the Study

The research project consists of five (5) chapters. The first chapter consists of a general introduction organized under the following headings: Background of the study, Methodology, and Results. Problem statement, objectives of the study, significance of the study, research questions, study scope, and study organization. The second chapter is a review of relevant literature on the subject under investigation.

The third chapter describes the various techniques used to collect data for the research. These methods include questionnaire administration, interviews, observation, etc. The fourth chapter contains results, discussions, and an analysis of the data collected for the study.

The fifth and final chapter concludes with conclusions and recommendations.





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