Project Materials






This study aims to provide light on the effects, if any, of television advertising on consumers’ purchasing behaviors.


It is a research survey based on a sample of 300 urban residents of Enugu. Extensive empirical investigations have found or demonstrated that advertising effects people’s selection and consumption of certain goods and services, as well as their consumer behaviors, particularly peak milk in cans and sachets.


In addition, it has been discovered that advertising provides a great deal of joys, amusement, education, and entertainment, and produces modifications that ultimately alter the consumers’ preferences and achievement development.


In addition, this study will help producers and advertisers discover the most effective methods for reaching their prospective consumers. It demonstrates the significance of distinctive selling appeal and television message recurrence. This study’s first chapter explains the definition of advertising and its effect on consumer behavior in connection to a certain medium/television. This study will reflect the attitude or acceptability of viewers towards it. It will also evaluate the success or failure of television in achieving its intended goals.


In the event that the objective is not attained, findings will be generated to make the study more sufficient for anyone who may choose to study or conduct relevant work in the future.





  • Background of study

Advertising is as diverse as its offspring, and it occupies a prominent position in the marketing structure. Advertising is a subelement of the promotion part of the marketing mix of product, price, promotion, and place; it is classified under marketing communication. Chambers English Dictionary defines advertising as the act of announcing something or the dissemination of information regarding merit claims. In addition, the American Marketing Association defines advertising as any form of paid, non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas or services by a clearly acknowledged sponsor. Advertising serves primarily as a marketing technique and a means of communicating the feasibility of items and the general public’s access to products and services. In describing advertising, Dunn and Barban (1978:4) state that nearly everyone acknowledges that advertising is an aggressive and frequently disruptive type of communication that influences us directly and indirectly. According to Durn and Barban (1978:4), advertising is business firms’ paid non-personal communication through multiple media. In general, the objective of advertising is to communicate the availability of a product or service to non-profit organizations and individuals who are identified in the advertising message and who hope to inform or persuade members of a certain audience. The pricing and benefits of a product or service with the intent of selling it. There are two types of advertising: primary and selective. By primary advertising, we mean advertising that tries to increase demand for genetic products or services across a broad sector or organization. In contrast, selective advertising increases demand for a certain product of a corporation or business. In the instance of Unilever Nigeria Plc’s sponsorship of football tournaments and other sporting events, primary advertising is frequently employed by organizations in order to attract customers to their product line. This is done in order to create consumer demand for their products. A well-known brand may be maintained by selective advertising. Use selective advertising, often known as direct action advertising, to retain an established brand. Selective advertising is also known as direct response advertising. The Enugu milk action commercial during Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Network special programs, such as supervision. In such advertisements, the price of the promoted goods or service is always mentioned.


Another sort of advertising is known as institutional advertising. This style of advertising focuses on building a favorable impression of an organization in the minds of society or the business world, as opposed to the items or services for which the advertisement is produced. Message here is centered on the company name Advertising as a kind of economic activity has existed since ancient times. On the walls of ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman buildings were posters, paintings, signboards, and drawings promoting various products (Age et al 1982). Similarly to modern-day hawkers, merchants throughout this time period carried their waves to announce the availability of various goods. This was advertising at its most primitive and basic. Prior to the eighteenth century, advertising played a little role in corporate operations. When Johnann Guttebery invented the printing press around 1440, business transactions were based on personal selection. Hanbius posters and then newspapers were used to market goods and services. Advertising was in its infancy until advertisements debuted in American newspapers (sand ega and try Burger,1763) However, this new development was constrained by the lack of commerce. However, beginning in 1840, the volume of advertising increased alongside the volume of commerce. When radio broadcasting established its foothold in the United States of America in the 1920s, radio advertising emerged and boosted commerce. About two decades after the development of radio, television was introduced, which expanded broadcast advertising and eventually overtook radio as the dominant medium. Zingler and Howard (1984:10-11) emphasize the significance of the United States by stating that television’s gross advertising revenues accounted for approximately seventy-five percent of broadcasting’s total receipts, while the remaining twenty-five percent was spent on radio. The same or other countries may have a similar situation. Since then, television has dominated broadcast advertising, which was formerly dominated by radio. The primary objective of advertising is to influence the mentality of the public in order to attract them to a certain product or service. Ikechukwu Nwosu (1990) describes advertising as mass communication intended to aid in the sale of products, services, ideas, persons, institutions, and organizations. Numerous methods are employed in the advertising process, such as print advertising consisting of newspapers, magazines, journals, billboards or outdoor advertising, and mail order, and broadcast advertising consisting of radio and television advertising, which has in a sense supplanted all other types of advertising. This is because television combines sound, color, and motion, whereas the other media do not. United African Company founded West African publicity limited (WAP) in 1929, marking the beginning of modern advertising in Nigeria (U.A.C) The newspapers’ readership rose as a result of West African Publicity’s placement of posters and other advertising items exported to West Africa by British publicity manufacturers on newspapers such as the daily times.


In 1932, radio transmission was introduced to the country, hence increasing opportunities for product advertising. But the impact was not felt until 1959, when the Western regional government of Nigeria, under the premiership of the late Chief Obafemi Awolowo, established the first television station in black Africa. Thus, television advertising was born. The eastern and northern regional governments followed the western region in establishing television and radio stations in 1960 and 1962, respectively. Since then, the number of television channels in the country has increased steadily. According to Amechi (1991:5), in 1991 there were approximately thirty-nine television stations, but in recent years the number has increased and Nigeria should now have over sixty television stations. ATI, Silverbird, etc. have emerged and are now competing for consumer attention with the largely government-owned television stations that dominate the broadcast landscape in Nigeria. Audience size has also increased dramatically, which has led to a rise in advertising expenditure.




As Nigeria’s economy becomes more industrialized and complicated, advertisers have learned that television is a versatile tool for advertising their goods, services, and ideas. Television, the advertising medium with the fastest growth rate in the world today, has the greatest appeal, concur Seigler and Howard (1984:17) Mention that the visual components, which allow the instantaneous transmission of sight, motion, and color through television, are, of course, the most crucial. Using close-up camera shots with both visual and audible capabilities, advertisers can demonstrate their products by highlighting their most visually appealing qualities and emphasizing their packaging and corporate logos. Television gets closer than any other mass medium to the ideal of person-to-person selling. Television’s uniqueness and strength stem from its capacity to combine many of the roles provided by other media individually.




Advertisements on television can generate drama. Tension and emotion It is a powerful force that shapes and modifies behavior. Because it mixes auditory and visual inputs with motion and drama. It has the ability to capture attention, arouse interest, and instruct through illustration and example. Advertising on television possesses a dynamic vitality and a tremendous power to attract and retain big audiences. Thus, for television advertising to be successful and fulfill its goals. There shall be knowledge. Stimulus values and focus. This is due to the fact that information is news, whereas stimulus values drive a client to analyze, judge, and select a certain product from all other surrounding advertising signals. The ultimate goal of television advertising is to influence the way viewers of television advertising think and behave in order to facilitate the sale of a product or service. As one of the main producers of consumer goods, Unilever Nigeria Plc, makers of blue Enugu milk, has relied heavily on television advertising to promote its variety of products.



Television as a medium of communication gained importance in the branding of products, services, people, and corporate entities; it has become a primary medium with its motive force of sight, sound, spectacle, color, and motion; however, the majority of television viewers are unaware of the extent to which television influences their purchasing decisions. The study is conducted out of concern that television viewers in Enugu urban may not be adhering to the effects television advertising has on their purchase of milks such as Peak. Recent observations indicate that milks exist under the genetic name Peak. This study will determine whether or not the real product Peak is consumed in Enugu urban and its environs. From the available literature, there has been no attempt to determine the effects of television viewership and consumers on Enugu. There is also the problem of determining if the Peak milk television advertisement has been able to influence the disposition of some potential consumers towards Peak milk. This is based on the fact that the news adjacency of Peak television advertisements may have influenced these consumers (NTA).



How has Peak milk advertising affected the purchasing decisions of its customers?

How has the Peak milk marketing utilized creativity to attract consumers?

Why is Peak milk more popular than other milks in Enugu city?



To determine the amount of consumer acceptability of Peak milk.

Analyze critically the extent of awareness that Peak milk advertising has achieved.

Determine how television has contributed to consumers’ increased awareness of Peak milk.

Examine the role of drama or theater in the Peak milk television advertising.



Every corporation’s wife is primarily dependent on the goodwill of consumers who purchase its products. The response of consumers to a product or service influences whether or not that product will remain on the market. When advertising Peak milk, the study will be of enormous value to FrieslandCampina WAMCO’s markets in Enugu, Enugu State, and Nigeria. It is also anticipated to be of great significance to markets of other brands of milk in the country, as it will help them determine the best way to advertise and compete with their own product. The study will also be of assistance to research firms, advertising practitioners, and research students specializing in advertising and marketing in the area of consumer behaviour. It will also be of assistance to marketing and media planners on corporate bodies involved in the production of milks when purchasing airtime.




During the course of conducting the research, the researcher found an extraneous variable that diminished the work’s efficacy. The information generated by Peak Milk personnel from books and articles includes a number of aspects.


Time Restriction: Due to the nature of the investigation, the allowed time was insufficient, preventing the research from encompassing all relevant entities.

Finances: Inadequate funding was a significant obstacle throughout the course of this project and limited its scope. This study endeavor was canceled due to the astronomical transportation costs associated with gathering the essential data.

Accessibility: During the course of this research project, the researcher had difficulty gaining access to the population of interest; as a result, not all of the needed data was gathered, as an exhaustive visit was not also conducted.

The majority of respondents were unable and afraid to participate in information distribution because they were not provided with reliable information.



During the process of conducting this investigation, the researcher found an extraneous circumstance that impeded the work’s smooth progression. The information was compiled by Peak Milk book and journal staff and includes the following factors:


Finance: Inadequate financial resources impeded a quicker recovery. This study endeavor was canceled due to the astronomical transportation costs associated with gathering the essential data.

Time Restriction: Due to the nature of the study, the allocated time was insufficient, preventing the researcher from examining all relevant organizations.

Accessibility: During the course of this research project, the researcher had difficulty gaining access to the population of interest; as a result, not all of the needed data was gathered, as an exhaustive visit was not also conducted.

The majority of respondents were unable and afraid to participate in information distribution because they were not provided with reliable information.



1) A consumer is a person who purchases or has the ability to purchase goods and services supplied by marketing organizations or corporate entities in order to meet personal requirements, wants, and desires.


2) Advertising: the message conveying the features of a specific product to the intended audience.


3) Advertising: This refers to the preparation of an advertisement’s message and its presentation in the media.


4) Consumer Behaviour: This is a facet of human behavior concerned with the purchase of products and services for the fulfilment of human desires, wants, and requirements.


5) News Adjacency: This refers to the advertising time before, during, and shortly after news broadcasts on radio or television.


6) Institutional Advertising: This is the type of advertising that is essential for the construction of a favorable impression of an organization or corporate body in the minds of the society or business community, as opposed to advertisements on products or services.


7) Network Advertising: This is a form of advertising that spans the entire nation.


Regional advertising is a form of advertising that is confined to a specific region of the country.


9) Primary Advertising: This is the form of advertising that aims to increase demand for the company’s genetic products or services.


10) Selective Advertising: This is advertising that stimulates demand for a certain product of a particular industry or company. Also referred to as direction advertising.





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