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1.1 Background Of The Study

The most common approaches to teacher evaluation are student evaluations. Other options include teacher assessment by the principal, peer review, self-evaluation, and the use of students’ exam scores.

Student evaluation of teachers implies that students who are being taught by a teacher are asked to express their thoughts and feelings about the effectiveness of their teacher’s instructional processes and activities over time, as well as the extent to which those processes and activities have benefited them.

Students’ ideas and feelings have been used as feedback data to improve instruction and teachers’ professional development. They have also been used as the basis or a component of personnel decisions such as promotion, pay rise, firing, and other kinds of award/reprimand for the teacher being evaluated.

Thus, students’ evaluations of teachers are a phenomenon and practise that has thrived in the murky waters of controversy over the years. It is one method of holding the teacher accountable to his or her students.

Instructions are occasionally used as a measure of the instructor’s performance from the students’ perspective in student ratings of the teacher. Although they are typically used at the post-secondary (college) educational level, some authors have claimed that the ratings can be used at the secondary and even elementary school levels.

The use of student ratings in teacher evaluation is based on the assumptions that (a) the student knows when he or she is motivated to learn, (b) the student’s behaviour is to be changed, (c) student ratings constitute feedback to the teacher, and (d) student recognition may promote or motivate good teaching. The majority of these assumptions are undoubtedly correct.

It is relatively inexpensive to use students to evaluate teachers, and some studies have revealed minor degrees of association between students’ opinions of teachers and students’ accomplishment scores. However, there are numerous concerns about the validity, reliability, generalizability, utility, interpretability, and acceptability of student ratings as a means or measure of evaluating teachers on the job.

Particularly when the results of such evaluation exercises are to be used for purposes such as promotion, tenure determination, dismissal, or other forms of award/reprimand. Some studies, however, have focused on correcting the flaws associated with using students to evaluate teachers (Darling-Hammond et al, 1983; Marsh, 1987; McKeachie & Lin, 1991; Joshua, 1998; Bassey, 2002).

Aleamoni (1987) identified eight typical concerns of students’ appraisal of instruction after a synthesis of thoughts and reports on student evaluation of the instructor/instruction: Because of their immaturity, lack of experience, and capriciousness, students cannot make consistent judgements about the instructor and instruction;

(ii) faculty express a widely held belief that only colleagues with excellent publication records and experience are qualified to evaluate their peers’ instruction; and (iii) most student rating schemes are nothing more than a popularity contest, with the warm, friendly, humorous, and easy-going instructor emerging as the winner.

(iii) many faculty believe that students cannot make honest judgements about instruction or instructors until they have been away from the course (topic), and maybe the institution, for several years. (v) there is a universal condemnation of student rating forms, as many staff members believe they are both inaccurate and invalid;

(vi) any of several extraneous variables or conditions (e.g., class size, student gender, teacher gender, course of major or area of specialisation, etc.) could affect students’ ratings; (vii) the grades or marks that students expect or receive are highly related to their ratings of both the course and the instructor;

and (viii) faculty members frequently ask how student ratings or evaluations can possibly be used to improve instruction.

Although Aleamoni (1987) has presented well-researched views and study reports to address each of these eight concerns, SET remains a source of concern, which justifies the numerous studies aimed at assessing the attitudes of teachers and faculty (who are at the centre of such evaluation programmes), of which this study is one.

However, Remmers, widely regarded as the father of research into students’ evaluations of instruction, made the following strong conclusions in 1927, based on evidence accumulated over more than two decades of research: (i) there is justification for assigning validity to students’ ratings, not just as measures of students’ attitudes towards the instructor, but also as measures of what students actually learn from the course content;

(ii) students’ judgement as a criterion of effective teaching can no longer be dismissed as invalid and irrelevant; (iii) teachers at all levels of the educational ladder have no real choice as to whether they will be judged by those they teach; the only real choice is whether they will be judged by those

After more than 70 years, the use of students’ ratings of the instructor/instruction as a criterion for evaluating the teacher’s performance or effectiveness is a practise that has sparked research, including this one.

Some of these research findings are positive and illuminating, whereas others are dubious in terms of dependability and validity.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Many studies, including those of McKeachie (1983), Roe & McDonald (1983), Marsh (1987), and Marsh & Dunkin (1991), have discovered positive attitudes towards students’ evaluations of teachers. These research’ conclusions confirm to the utility and accuracy of student evaluations, as well as their favourable relationship to teaching effectiveness when compared to other metrics.

Other studies, however, have not discovered such positive attitudes. For example, in a study by Kauchak et al (1985), student evaluation of instructors was placed seventh out of ten alternative ways in terms of perceived validity, yet in a study by Newton & Braithwaite (1988), this same approach was ranked eighth out of the nine available evaluation methodologies.

Stark and Lowther (1984) ranked student ratings of the teacher fifth out of six ways studied. Primary and secondary school instructors were used in all of these research. The ranks aren’t really spectacular.

The main problem with these research is that the majority of them were conducted abroad, namely in the United States. Similar studies should be conducted in Nigeria to determine the attitudes and perceptions of Nigerian instructors towards teaching.

It is also crucial to determine whether particular teacher traits influence the attitudes expressed by teachers. This is the difficulty, and thus the motivation for this study.

The goal of this study is to establish the impact of poor teaching attitudes in Nigeria, as well as how these attitudes were influenced by specific variables (such as gender, geographical area, academic qualifications, teaching experience, and professional standing) in Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives Of The Research

The overall or primary goal of this study is to explore the impact of poor teaching attitudes in Nigeria. The precise goals are as follows:

i) To determine whether a teacher’s teaching experience influences instructors’ attitudes towards the teaching profession.

ii) To determine whether the teacher’s gender influences his or her attitude towards the teaching profession.

iii) Determine whether the teacher’s qualifications influence his or her attitude towards teaching.

iv) Determine the environmental factors that influence teachers’ attitudes towards teaching.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are some of the questions that this research will attempt to answer:

i) To what extent does a teacher’s teaching experience influence instructors’ attitudes towards the teaching profession?

ii) Does the teacher’s gender influence his or her attitude towards the teaching profession?

iii) Does the teacher’s educational background influence his or her attitude towards teaching?

iv) Does the teaching environment influence teachers’ attitudes towards teaching?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were proposed to guide the study’s conduct:

i) A teacher’s teaching experience has no substantial bearing on instructors’ attitudes towards the teaching profession.

ii) Teachers’ gender influences their attitudes towards the teaching profession.

iii) Teachers’ qualifications have a considerable impact on their attitude towards teaching.

iv) The environment has a considerable impact on teachers’ attitudes towards teaching.

1.6 Importance of the Research

The findings of this study will undoubtedly highlight the factors influencing instructors’ attitudes and behaviours towards teaching. This, in turn, will aid in identifying the major issues confronting teachers, students, and the community as a whole, with suitable solutions explored.

Out. As a result, the study will serve as a guide for educational administrators when deciding on teacher attitudes towards effective teaching.

1.7 Definition Of Terms

Attitude: This relates to a teacher’s overall behaviour as a result of instruction. This external manifestation of inner teaching represents the teacher’s overall disposition, which includes various acts and emotions that affect the teacher’s overall output.

Teachers: All those who are professionally skilled and certificated as a result of training in educational and associated courses to improve learners’ understanding are considered teachers.

They include N.C.E. and B.Sc. holders from accredited universities.

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