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In the service industry, an organization's success or failure depends on how well it satisfies consumer needs and desires. This study's primary objective is to determine the relationship between human resource management and comprehensive quality management. Employees and patients at the U.I.T.H. were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative questionnaires as part of this study's evaluation of its objective. The purpose of the survey was to obtain their opinions regarding the quality of the hospital's services. In this light, the purpose of the study is to determine the perceptions of employees and patients on HRM's implementation of TQM.

One hundred respondents, including both inpatients and outpatients, were selected in order to measure their perception of the quality of services at the UITH as a result of the impact of human resource management on total quality management. In a similar fashion, a sample of 50 institution employees was chosen in order to collect information regarding employees' perspectives on the implementation of total quality management through human resource management. In accordance with the condition and disposition of the patients, a biased sample of one hundred patients, consisting of fifty inpatients and fifty outpatients, was selected until the desired sample size was reached. Fifty employees were selected at random from the staff population. Simple random sampling entails selecting cases (employees) till achieving the necessary sample size.

According to the findings of the study, there is a positive linear relationship between the sexes of patients and their perceptions of the quality of service received. The co-efficient of correlation(r=0.098) is modest. Though the association is weak but positive, HRM on Total Quality Management increases the amount of patient service variance by only 1% (r2 = 0.010), although being statistically significant at 0.05.

The study of the empirical findings revealed that the employee's cadre had no bearing on their view of the influence of HRM on TQM. It was also revealed that the employee‘s area of expertise influenced their assessment of the impact of HRM on TQM. Whether patients are inpatients or outpatients has little bearing on how they view the influence of HRM on TQM. The majority of patients concur that the hospital's service quality has improved after the deployment of TQM through HRM in prior years. Comparing mortality rates from prior years to those obtained since the implementation of TQM using HRM, it was observed that the death rate has decreased significantly. From the of the survey data, recommendations will be made for the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital Service Improvement program to assist the institution in managing its brand and sustaining and enhancing the quality of its services.





The concept of quality has existed for a very long period, yet its definition has evolved and altered over time. In the early 20th century, quality management entailed evaluating products to verify they fulfilled requirements. During World War II, in the 1940s, quality became more statistical in nature. To evaluate quality, statistical sampling techniques were utilized, and quality control charts were utilized to monitor the production process. With the assistance of so-called “quality gurus” in the 1960s, the notion acquired a larger meaning. The notion of quality expanded to cover the entire organization, not just the production process. Since all functional areas were accountable for product quality and shared the consequences of poor quality, quality was viewed as an enterprise-wide issue.

In the late 1970s, according to Wilkinson (2008), the definition of quality for corporations altered drastically. Prior to that time, quality was considered as something that required inspection and correction. In the 1970s and 1980s, however, several U.S. businesses lost market share to foreign competitors. For instance, in the auto industry, Toyota and Honda emerged as big participants. In the market for consumer goods, market leaders were Toshiba and Sony. These foreign competitors were manufacturing significantly superior quality goods at significantly lower prices.

Total quality management (TQM) is the word used to describe the modern notion of quality. Observe that the old concept is reactive, intended to address quality issues after they have occurred.

Typically, employees in a service company, and especially those with frequent client contact, function as representatives of both the firm and its products or services to the consumer at the moment of contact. The quality of the service and client satisfaction will be evaluated based on the total service experience.

Customers may perceive empowered employees of a firm in either a positive or bad light. Considering that a pleased customer and employee are of great value to the firm, it is the responsibility of management to implement a system that will ultimately result in either customer and employee pleasure or discontent.

Since employees play a significant part in determining whether a consumer enjoys the experience or turns to a rival for better solutions, employee satisfaction is crucial.

This, according to Baruch (1998), causes organizations to rethink their strategy since, as Zeithaml (2006) notes, businesses now realize they may compete more successfully by differentiating themselves in terms of service quality and consumer happiness.

The evolution of clinical processes, technologies, and laws has prompted hospitals to seek out new organizational techniques and structures. In recent years, the markets on which hospitals compete have changed as a result of diminishing markets, rising demands, altered customer attitudes and restrictions, as well as a rise in worldwide competition.

Product and service quality are rated highly, with private and public organizations giving quality certifications and quality management as a result. Wilkinson (1998). (1998). Others have described the rise of quality as the end of mass production and the beginning of a new production paradigm based on flexible specialization Piore and Sabel (1984). In light of the prevalent tendency, better service quality and a higher level of customer responsibility are no longer only desirable, but essential, if market shares are to be maintained and expanded.

According to Oakland (), quality management is common to all sorts of businesses and is driven by the competitive environment:

Regardless of the sort of organization in which you are employed, you must:

– a hospital, a university, a bank, an insurance company, an airline, students, or whatever company you work for – competition is common: Competition between clients, resources, etc. Very few firms do not regard quality as a crucial factor in the pursuit of competitive advantage.”

The management's interest in quality is not new, but the use of quality as a fundamental factor in the pursuit of competitive advantages is relatively recent. Oakland (1989) asserts that, following the industrial revolution and the computer revolution at the start of the 1980s, we are currently experiencing a quality revolution. Multiple organizations have performed surveys revealing an increase in quality movements. The best-known of these is total quality management, which has been universally recognized as a significant advance in management theory. However, the approach or concept of total quality management is obscure. Even Deming admitted that he did not grasp precisely what Boje meant (1993). There are multiple causes for this ambiguity. The initial challenge is defining the concept of quality. Second, the wide variety of activities, practices, and methodologies makes it difficult to precisely describe what total quality management entails. Even if the introduction of whole quality management may be comparable in different firms, Knutton (1994) asserts that organizations may utilize total quality management in vastly diverse ways.


When service interactions are not effectively monitored and handled, or are not handled at all, the result is a poor sense of service quality and dissatisfied customers; therefore, a well managed comprehensive quality management framework is required. Consequently, what does human resource management play in the implementation of overall quality management and the improvement of service quality at the university teaching hospital of Ilorin?

How do hospital personnel see the influence of human resource management on total quality management?

2. What are the perspectives of patients concerning the impact of human resources management on total quality management in the hospital?

In comparison to before the deployment of TQM, how do patients perceive the quality of hospital services?

4.Have the human resource management strategies implemented in the hospital improved the hospital's service delivery?

What strategic role did the management of human resources play in the implementation?


This study aims to determine the extent to which the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital has achieved complete quality management via human resource management.

The study's precise objectives are to:

Determine the significance of Total quality management in the teaching hospital of the University of Ilorin.

Using Total quality management, assess the effect of human resource management on employees.

To investigate the role that human resource management plays in the implementation of TQM.

To investigate the influence of TQM on patients at the teaching hospital of the University of Ilorin.

To give recommendations on Human Resources management patterns with the goal of enhancing employee performance.


The research centered on the effect of human resources management on total quality management in the teaching hospital of the University of Ilorin. Although Oakland (1993, p.2-3) defines total quality management as a means for management to increase effectiveness, flexibility, and competitive advantages for the organization as a whole, because it satisfies internal and external customer requirements and the role of human resources in Nigeria hospital, total quality management is not the only method for achieving these goals. Using total quality management, the University of Ilorin teaching hospital increases the quality and effectiveness of its services.


The University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital is a full-fledged teaching hospital that offers healthcare services to residents of the state and the surrounding area.

The study's hypothesis includes;

The field of expertise of employees has little bearing on how they perceive the impact of human resource management on total quality management.

There is no relationship between employee classification and opinion of the impact of human resource management on total quality management.

The number of years of employment has no bearing on the impression of the effect of human resource management on total quality management.

The gender of employees has little bearing on how they perceive the impact of human resource management on total quality management.

There is no relationship between the type of patient and their impression of the quality of treatment received.

Ho: Sex of patients has no effect on their perception towards the quality of treatment obtained.

1.6 Importance of the Research

At various stages of the U.I.T.H.'s implementation of comprehensive quality management, the human resources department played distinct roles as facilitator, internal contractor, and secret persuader, as demonstrated by the case study. They assisted top management in aligning human resource policies and quality policies, creating and communicating the total quality management concept, preparing the organization and staff for the implementation of total quality management, generating quality awareness among employees across all levels, functions, and departments, developing management support for quality action teams, organizing quality workshops, and formulating quality-friendly policies.

The purpose of this thesis was to increase comprehension of the human resource management and implementation components of comprehensive quality management. Specifically, the objectives were to analyze the obtained data, examine the perceptions of both employees and patients regarding total quality management, and generate information regarding the human resource management task associated with the implementation of total quality management.


In healthcare institutions, the overall offering in a specific industry is on average comparable, despite the fact that they may use different strategies to differentiate themselves from the competition in order to win more market share and clients in the business. According to Gronroos (2001), “almost every health institution may offer a person with healthcare services,” but not every health institution is able to satisfy its clients. Therefore, service providers aim to differentiate themselves from their competitors by providing customers with higher-quality services than their rivals, which makes their services the basis of their competitiveness.

As services are intangible, heterogeneous, perishable, generated, and consumed simultaneously, it is unusual to deliver them and difficult for businesses to differentiate themselves from the competition.

As a result, a hospital cannot check its services and products to filter out poor ones before to presenting them to the consumer, according to Ashis K. Sen. (2008). Therefore, employees become the voice and face of the organization; nevertheless, it is not enough for them to be trained to give quality service; the entire system (organization) must be directed toward achieving the goal of providing excellent services at all times.

According to Looy (2003), because of the special nature of service delivery, “empowerment becomes a crucial issue for service-producing companies.” Customers and workers are simultaneously involved in the production of this service. The organization considers this interdependence while determining how to effectively serve its customers. The incapacity of management to regulate the service encounter places the responsibility for the quality of service provided to clients on the employees. In order for management to believe that overall quality management has been achieved, management must provide employees with the authority and resources essential for success. Relevant and timely support systems, management policies, technology, and information must be in place.

In concerns pertaining to health services, patients require not just assurances regarding the quality of services received, but also that their investment in a particular health institution is recognized. Customers of a health institution rely on the services provided to them by the hospital. Whether they are on admission, receiving outpatient consultations, purchasing medications from the hospital's pharmacy, or receiving medical social services, they rely on the employees responsible for handling their issues to provide superior service in order to increase customer satisfaction. When service interactions are not effectively monitored and handled, or are not handled at all, the result is a poor sense of service quality and dissatisfied customers; therefore, a well managed comprehensive quality management framework is required.


This research is limited to the operations of one hospital; this is concomitant to the constraint on the duration of this investigation. This research will examine the idea of Total quality management's effective implementation at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital.

This study will be constrained by the researcher's lack of available time to conduct an exhaustive inquiry and the expensive cost of gathering the necessary materials. Another barrier that serves as a limiting element is the healthcare staff's unwillingness to provide essential information.

The scope and influence of human resource management on the implementation of total quality management are further investigated. Consequently, the findings cannot be applied to other hospitals.


i. Total Quality Management: W. Edwards Deming developed the management concept of Total Quality Management (or TQM).

TQM is based on reducing manufacturing or service process errors, increasing customer satisfaction, streamlining supply chain management, pursuing equipment modernization, and ensuring the highest level of employee training. From the free encyclopedia Wikipedia (April 19, 2010).

ii. Quality is among the most frequently misinterpreted words in management. What are the characteristics of a high-quality pair of shoes or bank account? It is pointless to make claims about the quality of a product or service without reference to its intended application or function.




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