The Impact of Hostel Accommodation on Academic Performance in universities
The Impact of Hostel Accommodation on Academic Performance in Universities
This study looked at hostel lodging and its impact on university students' academic performance. Three objectives were proposed: to determine the extent to which students use university hostels, to determine whether gender and age play a role in the distribution of university hostels in Nigerian federal universities,
to determine whether hostel accomodation has an impact on academic performance, and to determine whether special preference is given to faculties and courses of study in the allocation of hostels in Nigerian federal universities. A total of 77 responses were collected and authenticated from the enrolled participants, with all respondents taken from the University of Calabar in Cross River State. The Chi-Square statistical programme (SPSS) was used to test the hypothesis.
REVIEW OF CONNECTED LITERATURE
Academic performance is an indicator of how well students achieve in their subject, course, discipline, or registered programme. Academic achievement, as defined by Steinmayr, Meibner, Weidinger, and Wirthwein (2015), “represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments.”
The cumulative grade point average (CGPA) at the end of a semester or programme is commonly used to assess academic success and achievement in higher education (Muslim, Karim, & Abdullah, 2012; Baharin et al., 2015; Ranjandran, Hee, Kanawarthy, Soon, Kamaludin, & Khezrimotlagh, 2015). Many studies have sought to predict and identify characteristics that influence academic success in a variety of settings and scenarios.
Academic success is influenced by a variety of factors, including the study sample and the study atmosphere. As a result, the outcomes differ. Baharin et al. (2015) discovered a link between family traits and academic performance in Johor, Malaysia.
This backs with findings from a study of undergraduate students in Ethiopia that found parental education level to be a factor in female students' academic success (Tiruneh & Petros, 2014). The findings on student characteristics are frequently inconsistent.
This is due, in part, to the difficulty of controlling all of the variables that influence university attainment and academic performance (Thiele, Singleton, Pope, & Stanistreet, 2016). While Mersha et al. (2013) and Tiruneh & Petros (2014) found that school surroundings, particularly teacher roles and off-campus facilities,
had a detrimental impact on female undergraduate student performance in Ethiopia, According to Ranjandran et al. (2015), gender is not a significant factor in influencing first-year students' academic success in Malaysia.
The study discovered that admission credentials, a student characteristic, were ‘the biggest variable that influences the CGPA of first-year students' (ibid, p. 58). Fields (1991) also identified prior academic performance as the most influential variable on student academic performance.
These findings are consistent with a recent study of British graduates, which found that males start university with lower marks than females and are “less likely to achieve either a first or an overall good degree” (Thiele et al., 2016, p. 1432).
In an academic performance study, females outperformed males in a core architecture course (Opoko, Alagbe, Aderonmu, Ezema, & Oluwatayo, 2014). Adewale and Adhuze (2013), on the other hand, found a low link between entry qualifications (in Mathematics and Physics) and academic achievement of architecture students in Nigeria.
In Turkey, first-year undergraduate students' design performance was found to be influenced by their enthusiasm for and understanding of prominent architects and their works (Kirci & Yildirim, 2013). Emotions/self-perception, self-regulated learning, and motivation have also been found to affect academic achievement (Tiruneh & Petros, 2014; Mega, Ronconi, & De Beni, 2014).
Teaching strategies were also proposed to preserve architecture students' academic performance in core architectural courses (Afolami, Olotuah, Fakere, & Omale, 2013). Findings on the association between academic achievement and university aspects like as housing and faculty characteristics vary based on location and sample size.
Baharin et al. (2015) discovered a substantial association between academic performance and university features, owing to the proximity, accessibility, and quality of physical facilities, particularly the library and classrooms, as well as UiTM, Malaysia's IT services.
Mersha et al. (2013), on the other hand, observe that ‘the school atmosphere in higher education institutions is a system of stratification that represents inequalities in prestige and status among sexes' (p. 144). Nchungo (2013) highlighted poor student housing as a factor affecting 82.5% of the University of Zambia's surveyed undergraduate students.
Accommodation for students
Studies on student housing either assess the direct effect of student housing conditions on academic performance or address satisfaction, attitude, perception, and quality of student housing as part of modalities aimed at improving the overall student experience and, by extension, student achievement.
The latter constitute the great majority of the literature examined. Gender and type of lodging (on or off campus) were frequently used as dependent variables in analyses. In a study of students in the United States, Araujo and Murray (2010a) discovered that living on campus raises GPA by 0.19-0.97 points.
Student performance improves by one-fifth to one full letter grade as a result of living on campus (Araujo and Murray, 2010a, p. 1). At the University of Ibadan, Owolabi (2015) established a similar tendency. In contrast, Omar, Abdullah, Yusof, Hamdan, Nasrudin, and Abdullah (2011) state that the environment has no effect on the academic performance of offcampus students in Malaysia, despite the fact that “living off campus is said to be more challenging than staying on campus” (p. 1225).
Other research either find that living on-campus improves academic performance significantly or that living off-campus has a negative impact on academic performance (Yusuff, 2011; Modebelu & Agommuoh, 2014; Ekejiuba, 2015). Students' satisfaction with their accommodations varies depending on the quality of facilities and services supplied, as stated in the literature.
Features generally rated less satisfactory include overall student accommodation quality (Nimako & Bondinuba, 2013), fees (Khozaei, Ayub, Hassan, & Khozaei, 2010; Matthew, 2014), room size, service spaces notably bathrooms, kitchens and laundries as well as auxiliary facilities such as the internet, security, electricity and water supply (ibid; Neema, 2003; Yusuff, 2011; Najib, Yusof & Osman, 2011; Igbinedion, 2012; Oladiran, 2013; Ekejiuba, 2015).
Overcrowding and territorial issues in student housing (Amole, 2011; Modebelu & Agommuoh, 2014; Ekejiuba, 2015), cleanliness (Nchungo, 2013), distance from academic facilities (Araujo & Murray, 2010a, 2010b), thermal comfort, and noise levels (Yusuff, 2011) are among the conditions associated with negative satisfaction ratings.
Accommodation for students
Accommodation, according to the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (2004), is a term that indicates a place to live, work, or stay in rented, temporary, or furnished accommodation. Privacy, personal space, and territoriality are all aspects of accommodation. According to Jennifer (2011), accommodation refers to an individual's freedom of choice in a given physical situation in terms of what happens in it from one movement to the next.
One of the student personnel services that improves the achievement of educational objectives or instruction in an educational institution is adequate accommodation. In the context of this study, hostel accommodation refers to a place where students live that is typically located within the school grounds.
According to the author, student housing can be defined as a place of abode for students; it is also a place where students live and is typically located within the college where students are accommodated in hostels or halls of residence.
Apart from covering students from the sun, rain, heat, and cold, student house of residence also represents a learning environment with a significant impact on students' comfort, safety, and academic performance. The goal is for pupils to be able to calm down and have a place to rest. The purpose for this could be to allow pupils to experience the impact of the school environment on their learning activities.
Student accommodation, also known as student hostel/housing, is a place where students can remain when their residence is located distant from the educational institution and is considered vital to students' needs. According to Khozaei et al. (2010), student housing is defined as a dormitory that is created with some institutional or formal qualities and where students have access to the university's recreational facilities.
Students who live in a sustainable on-campus hostel become more self-sufficient because they share housing with no more than four other students at any given moment. On-campus hostel life also makes them smart, energetic, disciplined, tolerant, and socialised with other students and roommates, as they share space and facilities (Khozaei et al., 2010).
Parents may be less concerned when their children reside on campus because there is more security and safety than in off-campus housing. According to Jennifer (2011), the goals of any postsecondary education include the acquisition, development, and instillation of appropriate value orientation for individual and social survival, as well as the development of intellectual capacities to enable the individual to understand and appreciate his surroundings.
These goals cannot be met in higher institutions unless students are adequately housed and given with safe drinking water, adequate sanitation, a consistent supply of energy, and access to affordable modes of transportation.
One of the causes of psychological trouble is a lack of or inadequate accommodation among students, and when students are not properly accommodated or are crowded, the likelihood of violence is significant.
This is due to the fact that when an atmosphere is not conducive, it leads to or results in hostile behaviours emerging from that setting. Human behaviour is fundamentally linked to physical environment characteristics.