1.1 THE STUDY’S BACKGROUND
Family is a place where children learn to interpret realities (Wary and Passman, 1996). Parents serve as significant interpreters to children for information about the world and children’s ability (Hall, Kelly, Hansen, and Vulwein, 1996). Interaction with family shapes young people’s attitudes toward work and careers. A student’s career planning and decision making is influenced by his or her family background. However, the level of involvement within each family can be very positive or negative.
Parents’ socioeconomic status (SES), level of education, and biogenetic factors such as physical size, gender, ability, and temperament have all been found to be associated with career choice. In a study on adolescent vocational development, Panic and Jepson (1992) found that education had the greatest impact on education plans and occupational aspiration.
Mortime et al. (1992) also reported that parents with postsecondary education tend to instill its value in their children, which is consistent with other studies. Montgomery (1992) votes that students gifted in mathematics saw their career choice as a reflection of their early family influences and educational opportunities.
However, according to De Piddeo (1990), adolescents’ career choices can be hampered by their parents’ lower level of education. Being born to parents with limited education and income reduces the child’s chances of attending college or achieving professional and occupational goals, and has essentially predetermined the child’s likely career choice. Another aspect of a student’s family background that influences career choice is family income.
According to Mortimer et al. (1992), one reason for this could be that families with limited financial resources may prioritize the older children in the family, leaving less hope and encouragement for the younger children. As a result, it is understandable that students’ self efficacy in terms of career opportunities is linked to the financial support they can expect from their parents.
Another family background factor linked to career choice is the parents’ spiritual/health status. Parents who love Jesus and want the best for their children will encourage their children to pursue a career that will bring them joy in the future. Thus, Proverbs 22:6 admonished parents to pay attention to their children, while the children should demonstrate their obedience (Ephesians 6:13).
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The standard of education in Nigeria today is gradually declining, prompting numerous discussions among scholars, civil servants, educational planners, and others about the immediate and remote causes of the failure and the factors impeding high standards of education. While we can blame governments, teachers, and children, the families from which students come leave much to be desired.
It is important to note that we cannot exonerate a child’s family when discussing the student’s secondary school career choice. Family background factors found to influence students’ career choices include parents’ socioeconomic status, educational level, love for Jesus, family size, and temperament.
1.3 THE STUDY’S OBJECTIVE
The study’s primary goal is to investigate the influence of family background on secondary school students’ occupational choices. The following are the study’s specific objectives:
4. To investigate the relationship between family living conditions and students’ career choices.
5. Determine whether the ability and temperament of parents influence students’ career choices.
1.4 QUESTION FOR RESEARCH
4. Is there a link between students’ family living conditions and their career choices?
5. To what extent do parents’ abilities and temperament influence their children’s career choices?
1.6 THE STUDY’S SIGNIFICANCE
Students succeed in school when certain factors are in place or under control, such as ensuring that the child is fed well at home, gets enough rest, does his family work, has his work checked by both his teachers and parents, has his school materials, and receives adequate encouragement from his parents.
Additionally, useful information should be provided to the child to guide future generations’ career choices. In light of the foregoing, the students will assist parents in gaining insight into their children’s behavior and needs. The study’s goal is to identify the factors that impede or improve student selection in secondary schools.
1.7 STUDY OBJECTIVES
This study is limited to secondary schools in Edo State’s Esan Central local government area. In recognition of the similar situation that most students in other secondary schools in Edo State face, the survey will focus on students in their first and final year of studies.
1.8 TERM DEFINITION
FAMILY: A family consists of a husband, wife, and children.
FAMILY SIZE: The number of family members.
FAMILY SYSTEM: This includes monogamy and can be either nuclear or extended.
HOME ENVIRONMENT: This refers to parental experiences and aspirations for their children, objects and material conditions in the home for comfort, as well as specific behavioral processes that promote learning.
EDUCATIONAL UPBRINGING: This refers to children’s education and how they perform academically when tested or examined.
EDUCATIONAL STATUS: This term refers to social processes that result in social competence and individual growth and are carried out in a specific, controlled setting that can be institutionalized as a school or college.
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS: A person’s trade, vocation, or primary source of income.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: This refers to one’s position of recognition in society. A position like this may not be inherited but must be earned through personal efforts such as education, wealth, occupation, and social class.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: This refers to the student’s achievement, class scores, and position in relation to all others who took the same test.
EFFECTS: the outcome or result of anything, whether positive or negative.
HOME SITUATION: This refers to the prevailing atmosphere in the home, which could be violent, resentful, or chaotic.
PARENTAL ATTITUDE: A parent’s proclivity to respond to a specific stimulus in their social environment. Some responses determine how and in what manner their children are raised.