THE impact OF BIRTH ORDER ON STUDENTS' EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
THE IMPACT OF BIRTH ORDER ON STUDENTS' EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE study
Because birth order is important in child rearing, the family comes first in the child's life in a variety of ways. “The family is the cradle of personality,” as Cooley phrased it. It is crucial in the processing or induction of the child into society and culture.
The new individual's basic impulses and needs can only be realised with the environment provided by the individuals that surround him. His interpersonal relationships will be shaped not by any single cultural determinant, but by the myriad individual differences represented by family members.
As a result, it is important to mention that intellectual development in social studies as a topic area must be closely examined, with the family unit as the main ingredient in the construction of ultimate IQ growth, as well as the environment variable of a student's family.
The personality or socialisation pattern of a youngster may be influenced by his sibling position or birth order. The impact of ordinal birth position on the kid and sibling relationship has been extensively researched across the country; certain generalisations can now be made if we recall that all of their birth positions are incidental to the social and emotional climate of the family.
And this is highly dependent on the types of homes, such as the nuclear family, which can be viewed as a democratic home with minimal frustration. And the extended family, with its attendant frustration. Again, the socioeconomic status of these families is important in determining its relationship to individual student personality development in general and their performance in social studies in particular.
In this study, these generalisations will be grouped into the oldest child (as the first born kid) whose position in the family structure is unique, despite the fact that different studies and writers attribute varied effects on the position. The youngest or last child in the family, whose position is especially essential depending on the family's economic situation and associated cultural advantages for him.
The study of these age differences will go a long way towards assisting teachers, parents, and society at large in carrying out an effective investigation of the impacts of birth order on students' social studies performance. Birth order as a vital aspect of a child's formative and development stages will be heavily emphasised because it influences students' learning ability and absorption rate in social studies.
Along with this, the home and parental status, as well as environmental factors militarising against students' achievement in school in general and social studies in particular, will be focused as an area of study, being an important and strong determinant of measuring students' performance in social studies.
Along with this, the home and parental status, as well as environmental factors that impede students' achievement in school in general and social studies in particular, will be studied as an area of study, being an important and strong determinant of measuring students' performance in social studies.
In this scenario, the birth order or order of delivery of children will be evaluated or analysed from the perspective of the first born child, the middle born kid, and the last born child, as previously specified.
Huni (1966) agrees that the child's environment has a significant impact on the acquisition of fundamental information and skills.
According to Kernes (1997), in order for a kid to grow intellectually and socially with increased independence–to confront daily-life situations–the child must be supplied with a conducive environment that allows him to develop adequate motor skills and be motivated to learn.
Because it is so important in socialising the child, the home is the foundation of education. At home, the youngster spends his early years and learns his language. Data (1984) emphasised the importance of the family, stating that “the home environment remains a primary setting in which the child's initial experiences have an enduring impact on the child's physical, intellectual, and personality development.”
According to Datta, the child's early social and physical environment at home influences his subsequent social and cognitive development. Obanya (1981) went on to say that the learner's environment influences both his attitude towards school and his performance in school.
According to Uche (1984), there is sufficient evidence from previous research findings that a child's school performance is tied to their background and that activities that take place in a child's home are related to the socioeconomic status of their parents.
He also argues that many upper-class parents fail to offer their children with even the most basic degree of reinforcement and stimulation for their intellectual growth.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study's goal is to emphasise the importance of birth order on students' academic growth and performance. As a result, parents, teachers, and society will be able to recognise the significant distinctions in pupils throughout their schooling periods.
Thus, it is expected that the glaring effects of birth order will be enumerated sufficiently in this study for parents and society at large to seek redress where necessary, and to maintain an appreciated standard of breeding children in order to achieve the desired result of intelligent, well-motivated children as a product of education.
The study will also assist teachers understand why a student learns the way he does and their social studies performance, as well as make students aware of the different aspects that influence their academic progress in social studies.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem's precise statement is to investigate the extent to which the children's birth order or roles in the family effect the child's performance in court, as well as the family's socioeconomic level. The position of the children, that is, the first, middle, and last born child in the family, will be extensively examined in order to assess their academic achievement in social.
To determine the explanations for the students' varying levels of performance in relation to their various roles in the family. According to Miner (1969), a child's socioeconomic status is related to the level of success obtained.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following key questions are addressed in this study: 1. Is there a substantial association between birth order and student achievement in educational development?
2. Is there a link between the size of a family and a student's academic performance?
3. Is there a link between socioeconomic position and pupils' educational development?
4. Is there a major difference between the first, middle, and last child's performance and educational development?
1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
1. There is no link between birth order (first, middle, and last born kid) and pupils' educational growth.
2. There is no correlation between family size and student educational growth.
3. There is no significant association between a child's socioeconomic situation and his educational growth.
4. There is no statistically significant difference in the cc of the first, middle, and last born children.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research investigates the impact of birth order on student performance and educational development.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In the course of the study, the research encountered some limitations. The researcher had funding limits, which limited the number of contacts made at the various destinations as well as the number of surveys delivered and administered.
There was also general reluctance to provide information, as well as other factors such as accessibility to information sources due to the formal protocols required by the Principals. Inadequate availability of secondary data is also a restriction to the investigation.
Parents' reluctance to provide information or reply to questionnaires also worked against this study. The study is likewise limited to Lagos state's mainland Local Government Areas. As a result, there is a limit to how far the student's results can be generalised.
1.8 significance OF THE STUDY
The study is significant because it will raise awareness about the importance of birth order on educational attainment. Obviously, it would provide insight into why some children perform better in social studies than others.
In the long run, the findings of this study will assist educationists, parents and teachers, and society at large in realising that students' academic performance is not solely based on intelligence, nor is it solely based on socioeconomic background or family size.
As a result, educational planners, administrators, educational policymakers, and other societal challenges may find this study valuable.
This will make them aware that, in addition to Intelligence Quotient (IQ), child attitude, and the parents' education and the standard of the school the child attends, other factors such as family socioeconomic status, and birth order have an impact on the academic performance of students in school.
This study will also be useful to parents in child rearing. Parents prefer to discipline and pay more attention to their newborns than to their other children. Bringing out the true image of the family's contribution to the child's academic success, causing the parents to face a portion of the blame that would ordinarily be placed solely on the child for his or her bad performance in school.
The study will be beneficial to school principals since it will help them better understand the child and why he or she performs in a certain way.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A nuclear family consists of a man, his wife, and their children. This is a smaller family unit that maintains touch with relatives but is not dependent on them.
Extended Family: Whether a nuclear or polygamous family, the extended family includes aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents, wives of sons, and their offspring as all members of the family.
A polygamous family is one in which a man is legally married to more than one wife.
A polygamous family consists of a man, his wives, and their children.
Socioeconomic Status: The social and economic situation in which an individual may find himself or herself. It is recognised as the most important predicting factor accountable for pupils' academic progress dependent on their household.
Environment: This is the child's immediate physical surroundings in which there are forces such as temperature, humidity, and pressure that affect the individual and hence his learning.
Academic performance can be described as a student's result or outcome during the course of education. It can also be described as a phenomena utilised to assess the success of students in particular.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) can be defined as judgement, common sense, the capacity to perceive and reason well, and the ability to adapt to changing situations.
Domestic Situation: This term refers to the atmospheric aspect of a Family's environment.
Size of the Family: This includes the total number of children and parents in a family, whether immediate or extended.
Birth Order: This is the position in which a kid is born, such as first, second, or third.