THE EFFECTS OF EARLY MARRIAGE PRACTISE ON EDUCATION FOR girls IN NIGERIA
THE EFFECTS OF EARLY MARRIAGE PRACTISE ON EDUCATION FOR GIRLS IN NIGERIA
1.1 The Study's Background
A formal marriage or informal connection before the age of 18 is considered early marriage. Ango (2013) described early marriage as either marriage of an adolescent girl/boy or marriage of an adolescent girl to a matured man or vice versa, which occurs during puberty when the individual is maturing.
According to Molokwu (2000), the marital age is above the age of 18 years, when the individual is physically, socially, academically, and emotionally mature enough to deal with the challenges of marriage. Early marriage was frequent throughout human history, and it is still fairly common in some parts of the world, particularly in northern Nigeria.
The rate of married adolescent has some critical effects on various aspects of human life, including social, educational, and psychological aspects, as well as health. When formal education was initially introduced in Northern Nigeria before to independence, the government had to force parents to send their daughters to formal schools through the Native Authority (NA) (which later became the Local Government Authority).
The NA paid for these girls' education, who were conscripted to numerous schools, many of which were located beyond their province. However, the socio-cultural and religious practises that developed later in Northern states, particularly the North East and North West, changed as a result of the highest proportion of girls not enrolled in school and those who dropped out to marry.
The majority of these girls never return to school to finish their education, learn a trade, or get occupational skills that will economically empower and self-sufficiency them.
Education, a lack of economic empowerment, and a lack of knowledge about reproductive health services are all effects of early marriage on girls that affect their well-being and the well-being of society. This will allow them to make informed decisions, leverage resources, and participate in community decision making.
Poverty, unexpected pregnancy, parental pressure, peer pressure, and developmental stage are all commonly cited as causes for girls marrying young. More specifically, it has a negative tendency on the girl kid, including emotional and mental anguish, intolerance, school drop-out, Vesico Vaginal Fistula (VVF) disease, early widowhood, frustration, and hatred for the father (Clark, 2016).
Many ethnic communities around the world, including Nigeria, practise early marriage. It has, however, resulted to a number of harmful effects for both young girls and the society in which they live. It is a violation of human rights in general, and especially of the rights of girls (Abdallah, 2015).
Early marriage has substantial physical, intellectual, psychological, and emotional consequences for both girls and boys, cutting off educational and employment options as well as opportunities for personal growth. In Northern Nigeria, where the practise is prevalent, the impact is worse on girls, as many of them marry young and with greater zeal. Apart from having a detrimental influence on the females themselves, early marriage has a negative impact on their children, families, and society as a whole (Adedokun et al., 2012).
According to Giyan (2009), early marriage affects international efforts to combat poverty in emerging countries. This highlights the fact that the widespread practise of girls marriage makes it increasingly difficult for families in developing countries like Nigeria to escape poverty, undermining critical efforts by the three tiers of government to address educational challenges, poverty, HIV/AIDS, and other development challenges.
If early marriage is permitted, it will have a detrimental impact on the country's work force, raising fertility and death rates, and so on. Parents' incorrect thinking in attempting to pervert their daughter's virginity has resulted in an increase in maternal mortality rate and the danger of contracting sexually transmitted disease (STD) (Gupta, 2014).
It is really depressing to learn that Bauchi is one of the states with the highest proportion of married teens. An effort will be made to analyse the impact of early marriage on girlchild education in order to find a long-term solution to this heinous trend.
The high level of violence and burden of HIV/AIDS infection among married adolescents cannot be explained by the wide age disparities between the girls and their husbands (Kelly et al, 2003; Clark, 2004; Karlyn, 2007; Santhya et al, 2013); and the practice's pervasiveness has made a significant contribution to the burden of HIV/AIDS infection and death in Nigeria – ranked second among countries with the highest burden of HIV/AIDS, 10th and 11th with highest
According to studies, the practise is more prevalent in rural areas, among the poor, and among the illiterate, as well as in less-developed places (Ahmed, 1986; Lesthaeghe et al, 1989; Kabir, 1998; Yabiku, 2003; Saxena et al, 2004; Ikamari, 2005; Adebowale et al, 2012; World vision UK, 2013; UNICEF, 2014).
Nigeria is one of the world's high-risk areas for child marriage due to its high level of illiteracy, poverty, and huge proportion of rural people. Despite its broad prevalence and negative reproductive results, the researcher plans to investigate the effects of early marriage on girl's education in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Early marriage considerably adds to this bad health status. While there are areas of non-governmental initiatives addressing early pregnancy, the message from the government is mixed. National policies, such as those on population and adolescent health, that explicitly advocate the elimination of child marriage and raising the minimum age of marriage to 18 were met with opposition from a number of state governments, who refused to sign the Child's Rights Act due to its requirement that the minimum age of marriage be 18 years.
The country has one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world, with 43% of girls married before reaching the age of 18 (UNICEF, 2011 and 2014). The prevalence of this practise may not be correctly envisaged using the national rate; its prevalence and potential bad effects vary by region; it is in response to these issues that the researcher has decided to undertake this research on the consequences of early marriage practise on girl's education in Nigeria.
1.3 The Study's Objectives
The primary goal of this study is to determine the impact of early marriage on girls' education in Nigeria. More specifically, the study attempts to;
1. Research the causes of early marriage in Nigeria, particularly in the north.
2. Investigate the factors that impact early marriage among Nigerians from the north.
3. Examine the impact of early marriage on girls' education in Nigeria.
4. Investigate the impact of early marriage on the destiny of female children in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Concerns
1. What are the causes of early marriage in Nigeria, particularly in the north?
2. What are the elements that affect early marriage among Nigerians in the north?
3. Is there any impact of early marriage on girls' education in Nigeria?
4. How does early marriage affect the destiny of female children in Nigeria?
1.5 Hypothesis of Research
In Nigeria, there are no substantial consequences of early marriage on girls' schooling.
Hello, there are major implications of early marriage on girls' education in Nigeria.
1.6 importance of the Research
This study will add to existing research on the effects of early marriage on society. The outcomes of this study will inform the government and policy stakeholders, northerners, and the general public on the harmful impact early marriage has on the education and future of female children in Nigeria.
The outcomes of this study will serve as a guide and point of reference for future research on early marriage and female child education in Nigeria.
1.7 The Study's Scope
This study will primarily look at early marriage and its impact on female education in Nigeria.