THE EFFECT OF work ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY
THE EFFECT OF WORK ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY
This section will delve further into the definition of the term “effect of work environment” and a few key hypotheses related to it. A brief discussion will also be made of the various existent theories' relevance to the workplace in Nigeria.
Theories have tried numerous times over the years to explain why people behave a certain way in a particular situation. They contend that every behaviour, whether it manifests at work or elsewhere, is goal-directed.
The physical environment in which employees work includes the buildings, the furnishings, and the layout of the workplace. As a result, we may now discuss what an environment is.
In addition to the economic, social, and technological contexts, Kochan (1980) also takes into account the environment. It might be viewed as the environment of every circumstance, person, event, etc. that affects life.
As a result, those who work in healthy environments put forth more effort to produce than those who do so. However, the above description as it relates to the subsequent theories reveals more about the workplace.
2.2 TYPES OF WORKING ENVIRONMENT
The internal environment and the external environment are the two types of work environments.
THE EXTERNAL WORKING ENVIRONMENT
According to Molokwu (1993), the external work environment is a result of elements such as local customs and laws, the state of the weather, company rules, and other external factors.
According to Kochan (1980), the external work environment should be thoroughly examined in terms of the following environmental contexts: the public, political, and economic contexts.
INTERNAL WORKING ENVIRONMENT
The surroundings, including items that are important to the activity, are considered to be the internal work environment. According to Molokwu (1993), an employee's internal work environment includes the structures, furnishings, and physical setup of the workplace.
2.3 GENERAL EFFECT OF THE WORK ENVIRONMENT
The following theorists believe that the environment has a wide range of effects: In his article discussing the impact of the workplace, Gnaft (1964) claimed that environmental elements affect employees' productivity, quality of output, degree of waste, and rate of turnover.
He also suggested that a bad, hazardous, and depressed work environment causes employees to be unsatisfied with their jobs, which ultimately results in low productivity.
He continued by saying that when an office has a severe lack of excitement, the results include tardiness, resource waste, disobedience, and many other unfavourable attitudes.
According to Hicks (1974), a poor working environment puts employees at risk for accidents, discomfort, and decreased productivity; as a result, an organisation must create a supportive environment that will safeguard them in an emergency.
According to Flippo (1993), the physical environment is our most valuable resource because without comparatively clean air, pure or clean water, and sanitary surroundings, people lose their capacity for work and daily living.
He added that it is important to ensure worker safety for increased productivity by making sure that the air is not contaminated and that the physical environment is free of hazards that could endanger their lives.
According to Hicks (1974), a worker cannot do anything unless the workplace atmosphere is welcoming and supportive. An organisation exists within him, not in a vacuum.
As a result, every effort should be made to create the conditions—such as enough room, an office with appropriate ventilation, enough light, and other materials—that will increase the productivity of the staff.
Oliver (1975), in his own contribution, argued that a dangerous physical condition leads to accidents, and as a result, workers are inevitably going to suffer injuries at work.
Employee health and life are seriously endangered by unsafe tools and equipment, toxic air pollution, inadequate ventilation, and lack of personal protection equipment.
These factors significantly lower an employee's productivity. He went on to exhort labour employers to offer a good working environment that is secure and free from health risks, as well as amenities that will assure employees' wellbeing while they are at work.
2.4 Factors Affecting Employee Productivity
The following factors make significant contributions to raising employee morale inside any organisation in order to accomplish a certain goal:
Safety Measures – The level of safety measures inside an organisation serves to raise employee morale and encourages them to make significant contributions to the productivity of the company. Every manager needs to be mindful of what is best for their employees.
According to Anderson (1980), safety precautions are crucial in every organisation. He claims that when looking for job, a lot of people aren't just concerned about pay; they also want ideal working circumstances, which include the health and safety of their coworkers.
Additionally, he claimed that the lack of adequate fire extinguishers, a first aid kit, and other items in the office would severely impact the workers. He went on to say that if employees perceive that they are not cared for, their morale, interest, and attitude would not be improved.
Overcrowding prevention: According to Molokwu (1993), an office is safe for employees when there isn't too much of it. This promotes efficient operational procedures and allows for the unrestricted mobility of both people and materials.
According to David (1981), an unventilated workplace is a result of congestion. In his opinion, it should be ensured that proper measures are taken to minimise office overpopulation. He also emphasised how material flow in the office may be controlled to create a comfortable environment.
c. a lack of ventilation Groft (1964) He wrote that a stuffy environment limits one's ability to think and act, which lowers output. He continued by saying that good ventilation creates a healthy working environment free of weariness, lethargy, drowsiness, etc.,
which in turn increases worker productivity. David (1981) asserts that an unsatisfactory ventilation and air conditioning system causes discomfort to workers.
d. High-End Lighting System
According to Onibon Joe (1974), inadequate lighting affects workers' interest in and attitudes towards their jobs and contributes to eye strain and weariness.
A good lighting system encourages employees to perform their tasks efficiently. He said that the Office Shop and Railway Premises Act of 1963 mandated that offices have access to sufficient and appropriate light, whether it be natural or artificial.
According to Denyer (1974), poor lighting systems lead to employee eye strain and weariness. He continued by stating that the results of a test conducted by the Bureau of Internal Revenue in Washington, USA, demonstrate that the implementation of a better lighting system enhances workplace productivity by 5%.
He added that having clear vision is crucial for the satisfaction of industrial job as well as its fundamental quality and safety. Good coloration: According to Oliver (1975), a well-decorated office or working environment is an ideal home and affects employees' motivation and morale in positive ways.
Additionally, he expressed his opinion that the way a workplace looks has a beneficial impact on the people who work there. According to him, employees feel down in filthy, hazardous, and smelly environments, but benefit greatly from bright, upbeat colour schemes.