The study intended to investigate the effects of teachers‟ leadership roles on students‟ discipline in Wakiso secondary schools. The objectives of the study included; to establish the effect of teachers‟ in and outside class pedagogical aspects to students‟ discipline, to establish the effects of teachers‟ supervisory roles on student‟s discipline and to establish the effect of teachers‟ planning roles on students‟ discipline.
The research was conducted in Wakiso district and employed a cross-sectional survey design. Questionnaires were mainly used to collect data in addition to interview guides and documentary analysis. Twenty-seven secondary schools were randomly selected to represent private and government, day and boarding from both a rural setting and urban setting. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive frequency tables.
The study established that teachers play a very crucial role in enhancing the discipline of students in secondary schools. Teachers participate in supervision of students using well-organized records. Thirdly teachers plan their teaching and learning activities by the use of library information.
The study concluded that teachers should be well facilitated by the stake
holders (School administration, Ministry of Education and Sports) in order to successfully accomplish their roles of planning, supervision and as trainers of students.
The study recommends that teachers should select teaching methods that cater to all categories of learners in their classes.
Teachers should also be presentable in terms of dressing and conduct since they are students‟ role models.
The study also recommends that teachers should take keen interest in supervising students and also keep up to date records for proper monitoring of students.
The study finally emphasizes that school administration and the Ministry of Education and Sports should equip school libraries in order to enable teachers carry out effective planning.
1.1 Background to the study
Teachers play a significant role in inculcating students‟ discipline in secondary schools. Unfortunately many reports indicated that some teachers do not adequately play this role especially in their in and outside class pedagogical aspects, their supervisory roles and planning roles. As a result cases of students‟ indiscipline on the increase in most Wakiso district secondary schools.
Both Ssekamwa (1997) and Mamdani (1990) noted that the constrained status of the teachers led to a constrained teachers‟ leadership role. Different reports by school inspectors in Wakiso district (20007 – 2008) all indicated that students‟ discipline as well as that of teachers is suspect. Some scholars such as Akankwasa (1997) and Kagoda (1997) attribute the decline in students‟ discipline to teachers whose commitment seems dysfunctional. That is why a study was conducted in order to examine the effects of teachers‟ leadership role on secondary school students‟ discipline in the context of the many indisciplined cases in Wakiso district.
According to Ssekamwa (1997) formal education in Uganda has its origin in the activities of the early Christian missionaries in 1877 Anglicans and 1879
the Roman Catholics respectively. The introduction of formal schooling and the implied formal teaching profession also has its origin from the work of the early Christian missionaries (Akankwasa and Kagoda, 1997). At its inception teaching or the teacher was viewed with respect and honour (Munakukama Nsereko, 1997). The 1972 economic war and Amin‟s regime and the resultant political and economic decline greatly affected the teaching profession (Mamdani, 1990). Though teachers were supposed to be role models, their significant roles as guides declined and many of them, their responsibilities as leaders began being viewed with suspicion (Akankwasa, 1997).
1.1.2 Conceptualization of the study variables
In this study, a student is conceptualized as a person engaged in a study, one enrolled in class or course in a school, college or university (Webster, 1993). A student is therefore a social term given to anyone who enrolls in an education institution. Discipline on the other hand as defined by Hornby (1984), is the training especially of the mind and character to produce self control and obedience.
In this study, students‟ discipline refers to the regular pattern of behavior exhibited by students in secondary
schools towards classroom activities. These include lesson attendance, general cleanliness, performance in assignments and then school requirements operationalised as obedience to school rules, time management, plus adherence to school programme. Negative discipline such as truancy, “french leave” and maladjustment will be highly emphasized. In this study, students‟ discipline was mapped as classroom discipline, students‟ dress code, class attendance, respect to authority and attendance to school activities. This is in conformity with Okumbe (1998) who defines discipline as adherence to the various behaviors patterns necessary for maximum performance.
On the other hand, a teacher as defined by Webster (1993) is someone who teaches or instructs – especially one whose occupation is to instruct. While leadership is the state or position of being a leader, whereby a leader is a person who guides a group of people especially the head of an organization or country. Hornby (1948) defined roles as the functions or position that somebody has or is expected to have in an organization. In this study therefore, teachers conceptualized as leaders their leadership roles will comprise of administrative activities operationalised as teachers‟ supervisory role, teachers‟ planning role and teachers‟ in and outside class pedagogical aspects and how they impact on students‟ discipline.
Pedagogy as defined by Hornby (1948) is the study of teaching methods. In this study therefore in-class pedagogy reflected on the methods employed by the teachers during the teaching and learning sessions
Where as the outside class pedagogical aspects focused on the way teachers present themselves in terms of dressing and interaction with the learners. Generally the emphasis was on the teachers as role models.
Planning on the other hand refers to the organizing, arranging and putting in order the items or program for better performance (Musaazi, 1982) in his study teachers‟ planning roles reflected on the ability to create a conducive teaching and learning environment in terms of class room setting.
The theory adopted for this study is Bandura‟s (1997) social learning theory which stipulates that „people learn from one another via observation, imitation and modeling‟ (Okumbe, 1948). This means that students often learn a lot from observing their teachers‟ conduct and performance at work. Teachers are students‟ role models therefore students are likely to copy teachers‟ practices that they admire. Bandura‟s (1997) social learning theory closely relates to the advantages of class interactions in improving the conduct of students. This theory is a bridge between behaviorists and environmental influences. This implies that the way students behave is determined by the people they interact with. Therefore the more students observe and relate with teachers and their fellow learners, the more they are likely to be molded into well behaved members of the society.
1.2 The study context
Students on several occasions left school without permission or even did not reach school especially for day scholars; they practiced what is commonly known as „French leave‟ for boarding schools and truancy for day schools. Strikes had also been sighted out among some schools in Wakisodistrict as Nabusoba and Waiswa (2007, October 30th) commented on students discipline during examination time; “Uganda National Examination Board examinations arouses excitement in many schools leading to violent behavior and chaos in form of vandalism of school property, bullying and writing offensive comments around the school, among others.” It is upon this background that a study was undertaken on Wakiso district to establish the effect of teachers‟ leadership roles on students‟ discipline. None of the past researchers like Ssenkoobe (1991), Tumutoreine (2003), Byanga (2004) researched on the effect of teachers‟ leadership roles on students discipline in Wakiso district secondary schools, it therefore became necessary for a study be taken in that region.
1.3 Problem statement
There was both private and public out cry as evidenced in the different news paper articles Nakiganda (2006), Nabusoba and Waiswa (2007) plus other past researchers Ikube (2004), Kato (2007) and Tumutoreine (2003) that students‟ discipline had greatly deteriorated. School inspector annual reports (2007) indicated that for the last five years although teachers had to play a significant role in enhancing students‟ discipline, they seemed to have relaxed. That is they did not perform as expected. The study therefore examined teachers‟ leadership role in enhancing or constraining students‟ discipline.
1.4 Purpose of the study
The study was carried out to investigate the effect of teachers‟ leadership roles on students‟ discipline in Wakiso district secondary schools.
1.5 Objectives of the study
The study aimed at establishing the following specific objectives:
1. To find out the effect of teachers‟ in and outside class pedagogical aspects on students‟ discipline in Wakiso secondary schools.
2. To find out the effect of teachers‟ supervisory roles on the discipline of students.
3. To find out the effect of teachers‟ planning roles on the discipline of students.
1.6 Research questions
This research sought answers to the following questions:
1. How do teachers‟ in and outside class pedagogical aspects affect students‟ discipline in Wakiso district secondary schools?
2. What are the effects of teachers‟ supervisory role on the discipline of students in Wakiso secondary schools?
3. What are the effects of teachers‟ planning roles on the discipline of students in Wakiso secondary schools?
1.7 Scope of the study
The study was conducted in secondary schools in Wakiso district. The areas were chosen for study because it has an urban, peri-urban and rural setup. According to 2007, 2008 and 2009 MOES reports, this district has some of the best and worst academic performing schools in Uganda. It has also had schools experiencing violent strikes and students burning schools.
The study specifically examined teachers‟ leadership roles in line with pedagogical aspects, supervision and planning activities of teachers and how they affect the discipline of students.
1.8 Significance of the study
It is hoped that the study will provide useful information to secondary school education stakeholders in Wakiso district in particular and Uganda in general. These include: teachers, head teachers, parents, district education officers and Ministry of Education and Sports officials.
To the teachers, the study is likely to provide useful information on their role as supervisors and planners of the teaching and learning activities at the same time teachers will acknowledge their special importance in school as students‟ role models.
On the other hand parents will like wise appreciate their role as co-educators and
therefore work hand in hand with the teachers to foster students‟ discipline. To the headteachers the study will give them an insight on the importance of timely facilitation of teachers in relation to their performance and guidance of students.
While the Ministry of Education and Sports plus district education officials may benefit by getting to know the status in Wakiso district secondary schools and devise means of effectively facilitate the teachers for better performance.
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