1.1 The Study's Background
Food is the fuel required to get through a typical day. Calories in food offer energy for typical daily tasks. Students may fall asleep in class or lack the energy to pay attention to a complete day of classes if they do not have enough of this energy.
The brain is a component of the human body, much like the lungs, heart, arms, and legs. Energy is required for proper operation. Children who are hungry are more prone to struggle with memory and concentration because they lack the energy to perform these skills. Malnutrition can also disrupt sleeping habits, leaving a child exhausted from a full day of school. Furthermore, the brain develops quickly at a young age. The brain cannot develop properly without the proper nutrition, resulting in long-term impacts on learning capacity.
Children who are malnourished are more vulnerable to sickness. Certain vitamins and minerals are required to sustain a good immune system, but poverty frequently prevents an individual from obtaining these nutrients. Children who are malnourished become ill and are unable to attend school. Because their immune systems are already compromised, they will be unable to recover for some time.
When children are gone from school for an extended period of time, they are unable to study. The American Psychological Association's research reveals the psychological consequences of hunger on education. Hunger has been shown to create despair, anxiety, and withdrawal, all of which are impediments to a child's ability to focus on schoolwork.
Hunger can also lead to behavioral issues. A single child's behavior in a classroom can have an impact on the rest of the kids, the teacher's attention, and the overall learning environment. Hunger disrupts not only the affected child's learning, but also the learning of others. Diet, specifically nutrient-rich food, is required for a school-aged child to benefit from a formal education. Though foreign aid attempts to raise money for educational programs are critical, their impacts may be limited if the problem of hunger is not addressed first.
1.2 Problem description
The global population of primary school pupils suffering from nutritional inadequacies is high. Countries respond to these children in various ways, the most common of which are school food programs. Children that are hungry have worse cognition, poorer executive function, and inferior school success (World Bank Group, 2018). Foreign aid activities are focused on increasing funds for education in poor countries.
Giving a child a good education gives him or her the means to be more successful later in life, and hence the opportunity for economic mobility. Unfortunately, enrolling children in formal schooling does not guarantee that they will remember what they learn in class.
What is one of the most significant impediments to the child's learning process? Hunger. Hunger has a shocking impact on education. Chronic hunger, no matter how much students attempt to ignore it, can impede them from making the most of their formal education. The unfortunate reality is that hunger can have physical and psychological repercussions on young people that make studying much more difficult.
1.3 The study's purpose
1.4 The primary goal of this study is to investigate the impact of hunger on the learning abilities of primary school students in Edo state. The study specifically sought:
To determine whether hunger can lead to poor cognition in primary school students.
To see if a primary school student's malnutrition affects their learning abilities.
To determine whether hunger has a substantial impact on primary school students' academic performance.
1.4 Hypothesis of Research
HO1: A primary school student's learning ability cannot be harmed by malnutrition.
HI1: A primary school student's learning ability can be distorted by malnutrition.
HO2: Hunger has little effect on elementary school students' academic performance.
HI2: Hunger has a major impact on elementary school students' academic performance.
1.5 Importance of the research
The study's findings will be important to the government, teachers, and other stakeholders in education, including parents. The study will inform the government on the importance of incorporating the feeding program into education policy. It will help teachers become more sensitive toward their students' learning abilities, allowing them to help them develop when necessary.
The study will educate parents on the need of adequately feeding their children before sending them to school, as leaving them hungry can impair their cognition during the teaching-learning process. The study will empirically contribute to the body of knowledge and serve as reference material for other academics working in a relevant field of study.
1.6 The scope of the research
The focus of this study is limited to the effect of hunger on elementary school students' learning abilities. The study, however, is limited to the local government of Oredo in Edo State.
1.7 The study's limitations
The following variables are identified as limitations during the course of this investigation.
Financial constraints tend to impede the researcher's efficiency in discovering relevant resources, literature, or information, as well as data gathering (internet, questionnaire, and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will conduct this investigation alongside other academic activities. As a result, the time spent researching is minimized. However, the researcher will do everything possible to ensure the success of this study.
1.8 Terms Definition
Hunger is an unpleasant or painful bodily experience produced by insufficient nutritional energy consumption. It is defined as a condition in which a person is unable to eat enough food to meet basic nutritional demands for an extended length of time.
Learning Capability: Learning capability can be defined as the interaction of external factors, internal resources, and mental states. Introduction In a child's education. It outlines how children use their intellectual abilities to develop, process, and interact with the information they acquire from their surroundings.
The Borgen Project (2014), http://borgenproject.org/effects-of-hunger-on-education/? cf chl managed tk =pmd f2bb3dd45375397c43735cbb43ec3d0bce7eda14-1627477352-0-gqNtZGzNAs2jcnBszQi
Kudzai, Chinyoka (2014). The Effect of Poor Nutrition on Academic Performance of Grade Seven Students in Zimbabwe 10.5296/ijld.v4i3.6169
Rasheda Khanam, Son Nghiem, and Mohammad Rahman (2011). Evidence from Bangladesh on the influence of childhood malnutrition on schooling. 10.1017/S0021932011000149. Journal of biosocial science, 43, 437-51.
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THE EFFECT OF HUNGER ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS' LEARNING ABILITY IN EDO STATE