1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Classroom management is a significant part of effective teaching and learning process. Due to an effective classroom management, pupils flourish in a positive class climate and a compassionate environment. From a pupils' perspective, effective classroom management provides them the opportunities to socialize themselves while learning. From a teacher's perspective, effective classroom management involves precautionary discipline and fruitful teaching.
Okoli (2008) concluded that physical environment of the classroom and seating arrangement is interrelated with management. For the classroom to serve its purpose, the teacher must be able to establish order. This requires him/her to have the knowledge, attitude and skills necessary. He/she must be able to establish rapport with the pupils and their parents, involve pupils in the processes of establishing ground rules for behavior and being accountable for their actions, manage transitions during instructions, and motivate pupils to maximize time-on-task. The teacher also supervises pupils in their learning activities and lastly deals with pupils' misbehavior effectively.
However, the phenomenon of over- crowded classroom as well as poor quality and inadequate furniture in the classroom due to unlimited expansion has taken its toll on the educational system. Thus, only few people will deny that the quality of teaching and learning is on the decline at all levels of the educational system. Hassan (1995)
In the same vein, Ajayi (2000) opines that the poor result of the senior primary school examination (SSCE) in almost all subjects in recent years is one potent indicator. The increase in examination malpractices cannot be divorced. From poor seating arrangement in classroom
Effective classroom mangers create orderly, safe environments where pupils feel valued and comfortable. Thus, setting the stage for teaching and learning, to achieve classrooms space to support a variety of independence, small and large group activities (Crane, 2001). Elementary teachers also designate a large area of floor space where pupils can gather for read aloud, demonstrations and class meeting. Hence, in all classrooms, there should be no “blind” area in the room where pupils can be out of view. To structure “traffic flow” and minimize disruption, teachers separate high-traffic area such as group work areas, learning centers, pupils's desk and teacher's desk.
Supporting this view, Adeyinka (2012) stressed that effective classroom managers provide a structured, caring environment that meets pupils' personal and academic needs. Such teachers are perceived as authority figures in the classroom. They share high behavioural expectation, designing implement development appropriate lessons, and establish and enforce behavioural guidelines, because effective teachers respect pupils as individuals with rights values and feelings, they carefully choose their words and actions to protect pupils' dignity. They actively engage pupils in meaningful, challenging educational experiences and provide plentiful positive feedback. In short, they set their pupils and themselves up for success.
However, ineffective teachers are poor planners. They do not start class on time, become sidetracked easily, use limited, low interest teaching strategies, and create a disorganized expectation, (Adeyemo, 2012): furthermore, they avoid their responsibility in helping pupils to make good behavioral choices by trying to be the pupils' friend instead of their teacher. When that approach generates misbehaviors, ineffective teaches use ridicule, sarcasm, and put-down to put pupils in their place. Pupils disrespect for these teaches is evidenced through increasingly frequent classroom disruptions and exceeding poor behavioural choices.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Classroom management is the heart of any educational system. No curriculum Planning is complete without implementation and evolution, both of which are mainly carried out in the classroom. Most of the class activities take place while pupils are seated. The seating arrangement is therefore too important to suffer the kind of neglect being experienced by many primary school pupils in the country today.
As rightly observed by Cohen and Manion (1983): A careful attention of seating arrangement contributes effectively to classroom management and control of overall success of the classroom. Observation reveals that in recent times, there has been astronomical rise in class size due to increase in environment of pupils in public primary schools. Some schools have as many as eighty (80), hundred (100) or above per class as against the teacher pupils ratio of 1:25 recommended by the National Policy on Education (FGN 2004) which can affect pupils's academic performance if classroom is not properly managed by the class management. This situation has multiple negative effects on teaching and learning as well as pupils academic outcome. This is evidenced in the failure rates recorded by pupils in external exams like W.A.E.C in core subjects like English language between 2004 to date (Osin 2009). Apart from this, pupils no longer have confidence in writing exams on their own without examination mal practice (Mgbikem 2004). However, this research tends to take a look into how classroom management has affected the performance of pupils in primary schools.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The reason behind this research is to examine the effects of classroom management on pupils' academic performance of pupils in some selected primary schools, in Odeda Local Government, Ogun state. The researcher is also interested in examining
1. The extent that classroom management has contributed to teaching effectiveness
2. The importance of classroom management to the pupils learning environment.
3. How classroom management has contributed to the academic Performance of Pupils in primary school
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research study is aimed at examining how classroom management affects pupil's academic performance. In order to gather valuable information on the topic, the following questions will be used.
(i) Why should teachers develop and enhance their skills in classroom management?
(ii) What do good teachers bring with them to develop supportive pupils-teacher relation?
(iii) How does classroom management help develop successful learning environment?
(iv) What is the significance of classroom management on pupil's academic achievement?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research will be carried out in some selected schools in Odeda Local Government, Ogun State. These schools are:
(i) FCE Nursery and Primary School, Abeokuta
(iii) St. Marry Primary School
(iv) Standard Nursery and Primary School
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The information that will be obtained from this project will be significant such that it will help a number of Individuals, Organisation, Curriculum Planners, Educational Agencies and Teachers in proper planning and development of the curriculum in other to ensure effective classroom management.
It will also help to improve classroom management skills so as to help the pupils perform better in their studies.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
EFFECTS: A change that something or somebody causes in something or somebody else.
CLASSROOM: This refers to a formal place, organize by educational planners where reasonable learners gather to learn and to achieve common educational goal from more knowledgeable person.
MANAGEMENT: The act of running and controlling an organization.
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers used to keep pupils organized orderly, focused, attentive on task, and academically productive during a class.
PUPILS: These are sets people or lower reasonable learners who learn from more knowledgeable person (teachers, instructors, lecturers) within the four walls of the school, so as to function well in the society.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: This refers to as the measure at which pupils perform academically in school which could be either negative or positive that determines the grade point, success, achievement of pupils in schools.
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