Project Materials






This study examined the effects of using audio-visual materials (AVM) in the teaching and learning of basic science in Nasarawa State secondary schools. The study also looked at the impact of AVM and gender on students’ academic performance in Basic Science. The performance of students taught with AVM was compared to that of those taught with traditional methods (CTM).

Three research questions were asked, and three hypotheses were developed and tested, in order to carry out the study efficiently. A large amount of related literature was reviewed. The study’s sample size was 100 secondary school students.

The test items were created by the researcher and then face validated by two experts, one in basic science education and the other in measurement and evaluation, before being administered to the students. Data for the study were gathered using the Basic Science Achievement Test (COMSAT). The hypotheses were investigated using covariance analysis (ANCOVA). The collected data was analyzed.

To answer the study topic, mean and standard deviation were used. The hypotheses were evaluated at the 0.05 significance level. According to the findings, AVM had a considerable impact on students’ cognitive achievement in Basic Science. Gender played an important role in students’ overall cognitive achievement in Basic Science. As a result, it is recommended that AVM be used in the teaching and learning of basic science.

State governments or their ministries of education, as well as professional associations, should arrange workshops, seminars, and conferences to train serving teachers on how to utilize the AVM technique. Finally, the study’s limitations and future research directions were discussed.





We live in a time when basic sciences are being used in an increasing number of domains of human endeavor. Basic sciences can help with decision-making, operations control, modeling, simulation, and automated production, among other things. The history of development demonstrates that no industrialized nation has succeeded without the application of Basic Sciences (Inyama, 2006).

Basic Sciences are employed in education in a variety of ways to help a wide range of students understand. Basic Science as a component of secondary school curricula has encountered various difficulties. Students’ responses to Basic Science have been poor over the years, particularly in public schools, and the reason appears to be that instructional materials, specifically audio-visual materials, may not have been used or properly utilized during instruction, which is a source of concern for researchers given the potential effects on students’ achievement in the subject. This stated issue has frequently been attributed to the effects of educational materials, notably (audio-visuals).

Meaningful learning is most likely to occur when information is delivered in a potentially meaningful way in which the information conveyed is made or presented in such a way that the bulk of what was taught remains permanent in the learner’s memory.

Audio-Visual Materials are defined as “training or educational materials oriented at both the senses of hearing and sight, videos, records, photographs, etc. utilized in classroom instructions, library collections, or the likes” by Webster’s Encyclopaedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language.

Dike (2011) defines the word as “those resources that do not rely exclusively on reading to communicate meaning.” They may offer information through the senses of hearing (audio resources), sight (visual resources), or a mix of the two. Indeed, the range of such materials is an eye-catching feature.

(Anzaku Francis, 2011) states that “the term audio-visual material is widely used to refer to those educational tools that may be used to transmit meaning without complete reliance on vocal symbols or language.” Thus, a text book or a reference resource does not fit within this category of instructional materials, but an illustration in a book does.

Some audio-visual components are process and experience-oriented, such as dramatizing an event or procedure or creating a diorama. Some audio-visual resources, such as motion movies, necessitate the use of equipment to unlock their latent value. Some items, such as an exhibit or a study print, do not require any technology at all. In general usage, this term refers to both physical objects and operations such as field trips.

Anzaku went on to say that audio-visual materials include both materials and equipment, that materials are considered to be a system, or body of content with potential value when put to work, and that equipment or instructions, also known as hardware, components, are the means of presenting such content. It is impossible to overstate the relevance of audio-visual resources in the teaching and learning processes. Some of the functions of audio-visual materials are listed below.

Learning based on sensory experience, experience extension Promoting participation, Creating interest, Instructions are personalized. It is a source of information. Making leaning a lifelong habit,


Learning through sense experience:

(Ngozi, Samuel, and Isaac, 2012) unanimously agreed that audio-visual materials are very important and useful in education because the normal learner, in terms of the functions of his preceptor mechanisms, gains understanding in terms of multiple impressions recorded through the eye, ear, touch, and other series.

This is to state that audio-visual materials are the equipment through which such function can occur, not in isolation, but rather through a balance pattern from any preceptor mechanism that is activated by external happenings.

Swank (2011). Considering the usefulness of visual materials in learning, it is believed that around 40% of our notions are based on visual experience, 25% on auditory, 17% on tactile, 15% on miscellaneous organic sensation, and 3% on taste and smell. The preceding argument clarifies why audio-visual materials are vital in the teaching and learning processes. This is because they combine the contributions of all five senses to achieve complete clarity.

Extending Experience: According to Gopal (2010), audio visual tools assist teachers in overcoming physical challenges in delivering subject matter. That is to say, audiovisual products break down communication and distance barriers.

Other countries’ cultures and climatic conditions can be brought into the classroom through slides, films, filmstrips, and projectors. This is significant because, as Dike (1993) states, “once the phenomenon is visualized, the picture and knowledge become very distinct and permanent.” A 20th century Chinese philosopher agreed, saying that “a picture is worth a thousand words.”

Encourage Participation; Natoli (2011) said, “audio-visual materials are abundant chances for students to enhance communication skills while actively engaged in addressing important challenges.” In other words, if kids are engaged in vital and engaging activities, they will undoubtedly like it more and learn better.

For example, integrating students in bulletin board display will improve their color selection and increase their knowledge of the idea in question, as would involving them in dramatization of an event or process with the teacher.

Stimulating Interest: “Learning takes place effectively when the teacher sets out to generate learning situations in which a child would learn due of his natural reactions to the offered materials,” writes Katherine (2009). During the learning process, the teacher must offer the learning environment to meet the learner’s natural reaction, which is accomplished through the use of instructional materials. The learner’s attention has been captured, as has his interest, and he is now ready to study.

According to Fawcett Hills (1994), who also contributed to the role of audio-visual materials in stimulating interest, “a friendly, accepting group climate is important in any learning situation, especially those materials that require students to reveal their ignorance and confront their fellow students.” Learning is enhanced when there is a climate of acceptance for learning.

Individualized Instruction: According to A. Lestage (2009), audio-visual elements can be used to personalize instruction. This, he claims, is feasible through programmed learning and tapes, which allow the learner to learn at his or her own pace and work independently. Furthermore, Dike (1993) claims that the machine frees the teacher to work with individual children because he or she is no longer compelled to perform standard drills. Another option to personalize instruction is for pupils to create their own resources.

Making learning permanent: According to Gopal (2010), “audio-visual approaches do seem to promote the acquisition, retention, and recall of lessons acquired, because they seem to generate the maximal reaction of the whole organism to the settings in which learning is done.” And perceptual materials rapidly identify themselves with each individual’s distinctive experiential background.

(Natoli, C. 2011) emphasized the importance of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning processes because “having seen something, most people recall, for whatever that thing was, it conjures up an image at a mere mention and may be freely discussed.”

Dike N.M (2011) also stated that pupils forget due to a lack of motivation and opportunities to apply what they have learned later on. By allowing students to visualize what they are learning, audio-visual materials can help to improve the clarity of information delivered. As Natoli (2011) puts it, “What I hear, I forget; what I see, I remember; and what I do, I know.”

As a result, it is critical to explore the effects of using audio-visual resources on students’ achievement in Basic Science instruction.



The alarming state of secondary school students’ accomplishment in Basic Science may be linked to a lack of interest on the side of the learners as a result of the teacher Eze’s failure to use audio-visual tools (2012). Without audio-visual resources, students do not recall or comprehend what they are taught for long periods of time.

Despite the amazing good impact of educational resources on instructional activities, teachers continue to rely solely on the traditional approach to instruction, which is neither based on sensory experience nor extends their experience. Above all, such knowledge cannot be retained.

However, there is evidence of low utilization and non-availability of audio-visual materials in schools, which has resulted in students’ lack of interest, attention, and active participation in the teaching and learning process, which may be responsible for students’ overall poor academic performance. As a result, they have not had a significant impact on Basic Science education achievement.

The question today is whether the use of audio-visual resources will increase students’ progress in Basic Science.



The purpose of this study was to look into the impact of using audio-visual materials on students’ achievement in Basic Science.

In particular, it tends to determine:

The impact of using audio-visual resources on students’ Basic Science achievement.
The impact of audio-visual resources on the achievement of male and female students in Basic Science.
Method and gender interact to influence student progress in Basic Science.


The following research questions led this study:

How does the use of audio-visual elements affect students’ progress in Basic Science education?
What is the average achievement level of male and female students who were taught Basic Science using audio-visual materials?
What is the interactive effect of method and gender on basic science student achievement?



At an alpha level of 0.05, the following null hypotheses were tested:

HO1: There is no statistically significant difference in mean achievement scores between students taught Basic Science using audio-visual materials and those taught using traditional methods.

HO2: There is no statistically significant difference in mean achievement between male and female students taught Basic Science utilizing audio-visual resources.

HO3: There is no significant relationship between gender and technique in Basic Science education students’ mean achievement.



Science educators have been concerned about the lack of an acceptable, relevant, and adequate method of education for teaching and learning basic science. The advancements and innovations in Basic Science educational methods tend to highlight certain positive aspects of using audio-visual resources.

Following the identification of the barriers to the maximum utilization of audio-visual resources in schools, efforts will be undertaken to minimize the impact of the barriers and promote adequate utilization of the existing resources.

The findings of this study will be made available to Basic Science education instructors in the school system via workshops and seminars so that they can effectively use the approaches in the classroom. The findings will help teachers decide whether to divide teaching materials/materials for male and female students.



The research is looking into the impact of using audio-visual materials on students’ achievement in Basic Science. The research was limited to secondary schools in Nasarawa State. The research will also look into the impact of audio-visual materials on the achievement of male and female students in Basic Science.



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