TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ATTITUDES STUDENTS WORKING FORWARD SCHEME OF INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE FOR STUDENTS
The Study’s Context
The concept of attitude is concerned with how people think, act, and behave. Attitudes develop as a result of various learning experiences. Because attitudes have such a strong influence on people, they are essential for understanding social perception. According to Ojo (2000), it is men’s disposition to see things in a certain way and act accordingly. This attitude, on the other hand, could be said to have pushed students who were admitted to universities to prefer a specific course of study.
Furthermore, some students continue to hold opposing views based on their attitudes toward the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), which encourages them to pursue Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) in tertiary institutions.
According to Akerele (2007), Nigeria’s current technological development necessitates appropriate orientations toward technological and vocational education as a springboard for skill acquisition. In her national education policy, the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2004) defined technical and vocational education as the acquisition of demonstrable skills that can be converted into economic benefits. It also refers to aspects of the educational process involving general education, technology, science, and the acquisition of practical knowledge and skills.
Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a skill training program designed to expose and prepare students from education, agriculture, engineering and technology, environmental sciences, natural science, medical science, and pure applied science for industrial work situations. Among the goals of the Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme are the following:
1. Give students the opportunity to apply their knowledge in real-world situations, bridging the gap between theory and practice.
2. Recruit and strengthen employment in industrial commerce information and guidelines (SIWES 2002).
4. Prepare students for the industrial work environment they are likely to encounter after graduation.
From the aforementioned objectives, it is clear that there are numerous opportunities for students who participate in the Students Industrial Work Experience (SIWES). According to Turners (2007), the more career options, the broader the choices, or the fewer the categories of careers, the more homogeneous the type of career exists. Career prospects in any profession can be examined in two ways in this massive and pervasive profession. There are two of them: I vertical and (ii) horizontal.
The vertical approach takes into account various levels of academic qualifications of job seekers, whereas the horizontal approach takes into account professional experience in the field of study or industry. SIWES can be completed by students in the following areas: Business Studies, Home Economics, Basic Technology and Agriculture, Local Craft, Computer Education, Fine Art and Music (Ezeji and Oviawe, 2009).
In fact, in recent years, political instability has led to a decline in student interest in SIWES due to poor infrastructure, a lack of educational facilities, and learning facilities such as work shop laboratories. SIWES requires students to work with tools in the shop, typewriters in typing pools, and utensils in the school demonstration farms.
According to Turner (2007), the poor state of university infrastructure affects not only learning but also students’ motivation to stick with their career choices. As a result of these issues, students have left their bases to pursue technical education courses at higher education institutions, resulting in significant economic loss. In Nigeria, the situation has not changed, as it is becoming increasingly important to determine whether the majority of undergraduates will be interested in SIWES based on their predisposition to the program, which is what this study aims to investigate.
The government decree No. 47 of October 8, 1971, as amended in 1990, emphasized the capacity building of human resources in industry, commerce, and government through training and retention of workers in order to effectively provide the needed high quality goods and services in a dynamic economic environment such as ours (Jemerigbo, 2003)
This decree resulted in the creation of the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) in 1973/1974. The growing concern among our industrialists that graduates of our institutions of higher learning do not have adequate practical studies to prepare them for employment in industries led to the formation of the Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme.
The ITF Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme was implemented in 1993/1994. (Information and Guideline for SIWES, 2002). One of the key functions of the ITF is to work as a cooperative entity with industry and commerce where institutions of higher learning can undertake mid-career work experience attachments in industries compatible with students of study (Okorie 2002 in Asikadi, 2003).
Students’ education is viewed as a process of developing skills and training personnel to impact goods and quality knowledge. FRN (2004) states it clearly in her national policy on education implementation committee blue print in Nigeria. SIWES is required for students in technical colleges, polytechnics, colleges of education, and universities, and the government has taken a bold step to ensure full compliance with the policy statement. Technical and vocational education is extremely important in the educational system.
According to Oyedeji (1998), teaching is a process of influencing learners’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes in order to effect change. SIWES’s primary goal is to improve students’ skills in order to improve meaningful learning (Ogunyemi, 2000)
Student industrial work experience scheme is one of the content areas where students’ performance is improved after a period of instruction in a way that is consistent with the goals of industries (Olatoye, 2006). As a result, this study focuses on the factors that contribute to students’ negative attitudes toward the students’ industrial work experience scheme in Edo state’s higher education institutions.
SIWES students in Technical and Vocational Education are an important part of Nigeria’s educational system. Various perceptions of these students toward industrial training are based on some motivating factors such as remuneration, relationship with employers, and practical opportunities, among others. According to Turner (2007), “right attitudes are influenced by adequate and proper orientation, whether materially or financially.”
To that end, certain problems have emerged among Technical and Vocational Education students undergoing SIWES, necessitating immediate attention from appropriate authorities. Among these attitudes are tardiness to work, disrespect for authority, and so on.
These issues, which persisted in Industrial Training, will continue to have an impact on SIWES’s skill acquisition goals. We cannot afford to relegate the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme to the background because of the enviable position of Technical and Vocational Education and their role in the industries. This program (SIWES) will be critically examined in this study, particularly in terms of students’ attitudes toward the work environment, and necessary solutions will be proposed if necessary.
The Study’s Goal
1. Students’ attitudes toward SIWES in higher education institutions.
2. Factors influencing students’ attitudes toward SIWES, and
3. Attitude differences between male and female students toward SIWES.
To guide this study, the following research questions were developed:
1. Is there a statistically significant difference between male and female students’ attitudes toward SIWES?
2. What are the factors responsible for students’ poor attitude towards SIWES?
Hypothesis of research
H0: There is no statistically significant difference between male and female mean responses.
H1: The mean response of males and females differs significantly.
The Study’s Importance
The following areas are expected to benefit from the research Project:
Contribute to the existing knowledge on students’ attitudes toward SIWES, particularly as it relates to Technical and Vocational Education students undergoing Industrial Training at universities. The study’s findings will be brought to the attention of educational policymakers in schools in order to encourage proper incentives and policies that will favor placement of students in their quest to undergo training.
Through the study’s findings, the government and its agencies in charge of SIWES will discover the need to improve the environment for conducting practical learning through industries. Students will benefit greatly because factors influencing positive attitudinal disposition will be recommended, and this will objectively determine students’ actual performance in the field.
The findings will also motivate students, parents, school administrators, and the government to do their part to ensure the success of practical education in this great nation (Nigeria).
The Study’s Scope
This study examined the attitudes of Technical and Vocational Education students toward SIWES at Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma, Edo State. The study was limited to 300 and 400 level students from the Vocational and Technical Education department. This is due to the fact that only one student from each level has applied for the Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWEWS).